Mayor John A. Delaney


1. Briefly describe the structure of your program.

CPTED is based on the premise that the proper design and effective use of the physical environment can produce behavioral effects, which reduces the physical environment’s opportunity to support criminal behavior. The term design includes physical, social, management, and law enforcement directives that seek positive human behavior as people interact with their environment. CPTED’s goal is to reduce the opportunity for crimes by manipulating the environment through design and use.

3-D Approach

CPTED is based on a 3-D approach, which states that:

All human space has some designated purpose.

All human space has social, cultural, legal or physical definitions that prescribe the desired and acceptable behaviors.

All human space is designed to support and control the desired behaviors.


What is the designated purpose of this space?

What was it originally intended to be used for?

How well does the space support its current use?

Is there conflict?



How is the space defined?

Is it clear who owns it?

Where are its borders?

Are there social or cultural definitions that affect how that space is used?

Are the legal, or administrative rules clearly set-out and reinforced in policy?

Are there signs?

Is there conflict or confusion between the designated purpose and definition?


How well does the physical design support the intended function?

How well does the physical design support the definition of the desired or accepted behaviors?

Does the physical design conflict with or impede the productive use of the space, or the proper functioning of the intended human activity?

Is there confusion or conflict in the manner in which the physical design is intended to control behavior?

Opportunity crimes can be classified by geographic location of the crime, and where the victim and offender live. This produces four (4) basic crime classifications:

Out-of-Area Offender Crimes: The offender comes from outside the area to commit the crime. Residential burglaries are usually committed by non-residents of the area.

Out-of-Area Victim Crimes: A person goes to the offenders neighborhood, or area, and becomes a victim of crime. Drug and prostitution crimes usually involve out-of-area victims.

Both Out-of-Area Offender and Victim Crimes: Under this situation, the crime is committed at a "neutral" location to both the victim and offender. Parking lot rape is an example of this classification.

Neighbor-to Neighbor Crimes: In this situation, both the victim and the offender are from the same area or neighborhood. A majority of domestic crimes fall in this classification.

2. When was the program created and why?

The program was created in August, 1989 in Jacksonville. The Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office wanted to understand the direct relationship of the environment to human behavior, and to crime. We felt if the design of buildings caused the criminal to feel uncomfortable, this would deter and reduce crime. The effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the incidences and fear of crime, and would increase the quality of life.

3. How do you measure the program’s effectiveness?

The effectiveness is measured in the reduction of crime and increase in positive behavior within the community.

4. How is the program financed?

The program is instituted into the Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office budget.

5. How is the community involved in the program? How has the community responded to the program?

The community involvement is determined by requests for CPTED concepts when designing buildings. It has been a positive reaction in the community.

6. Contact person:

Martin P. Garris, Chief of Community Affairs,

501 East Bay Street

Jacksonville, FL 32202

Phone: (904)630-2160

Fax: (904)630-1751

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The United States Conference of Mayors

J. Thomas Cochran, Executive Director
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Telephone (202) 293-7330, FAX (202) 293-2352

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