A National Report on Brownfields Redevelopment, Volume II
By The U.S. Conference of Mayors
April 1999

Table of

Dear Mayor



Executive Summary

Status of Problem

Potential Benefits

Other Findings

Survey Respondents

Key Findings


Survey Tool


Brownfields Task Force


Akron, OH
The city of Akron has bought the former General Tire complex and turned it into a new industrial park. The $1.75 million purchase of the 29-acre complex received the approval of the Planning Commission.

Plans call for tearing down the former General Tire headquarters and two other buildings on the site, dividing the land into four to six parcels and selling them to small-but-growing manufacturers for industrial redevelopment.Continental General Tire of Charlotte, NC now owns the site. The company will be responsible for any environmental clean-up that is necessary.

The city is applying for a loan from the Ohio Department of Development that initially would cover most of the purchase price. The loan would be due during that time By the time the city would have to start making payments on the loan some of the parcels will be sold and that money would be available to retire the loan.The site, including the half century-old headquarters, was on the market for several months when the city began to negotiate for its purchase.While several other older factory buildings in Akron have been recycled this site is ideal for leveling and building anew.

There is a demand for smaller industrial sites. For instance, the city’s 35-square-acre Akron Square Industrial sites has only one five-acre site remaining. And the first phase of the city’s Ascot Industrial Park is about 90 percent full.

It is believed that the General site would be a "hot location" because it is close to an expressway. It is anticipated to have 600 people working at the site in about five years.

The proposal will move to the City Council for final consideration.

Alton, IL
Over the past 30 years, the City of Alton has undergone a dramatic decline in its industrial economic base. The City is now actively pooling all available resources to arrest and reverse this decline. Economic redevelopment will only be achieved by addressing and remediating the environmental contamination found on properties in the Alton Industrial Corridor.

At least 15 industrial sites, varying in acreage, are situated in the Alton Industrial Corridor. Historically used for heavy industrial purposes, the majority of the area is contaminated in one form or another. Some sites have already been definitely identified. Presently, two sites have had Phase II assessments completed, both revealing environmental issues that have to be addressed. Other sites are suspected and have a high probability of contamination based upon the industrial uses that previously exist at a particular site.

In the broadest sense, the ultimate target of the City of Alton is to identify all environmental and financial barriers present in the industrial corridor; determine what costs are associated with their removal; and to seek to coordinate efforts with both public and private sectors to attract new development, investment, and jobs to Alton. In other words, put Alton’s brownfields on an even playing field with the surrounding greenfields, thereby rejuvenating an older urban core.

The initial pilot site proposed to utilize the Alton Industrial Site Remediation Program is the Alton Business Center, formerly the Owens-Illinois Glass Plant. It is a classic brownfield comprised of 144 acres of dilapidated structures and vacant land. Once a thriving glass container manufacturing facility employing thousands of residents within Alton and the surrounding region, glass production ceased in 1983 with mold manufacturing and foundry operations several years thereafter. The plant now sits idle in a contaminated and economically unproductive state. To worsen matters, the negative impacts generated by this brownfield have moved beyond the project boundary area into the adjacent commercial and residential districts directly north of the site. High vacancy, crime, and economic disinvestment permeate the surrounding area. If left unchecked, the negative impacts of this brownfield will generate further economic and social dysfunction for the City and surrounding areas.

Yet aside from the site’s obvious environmental and functional deficiencies, Alton Business Center (as well as the rest of the industrial corridor) does possess several strong location advantages. It is served by a good state and federal highway system that is readily accessible to interstates 270, 70, and 55. It is directly served by two major rail carriers (Norfolk Southern, Union Pacific). Barge access is available to the site via rail spur connection to an operating river barge terminal. Furthermore, the site is zoned industrial, thereby creating immediate multi-modal opportunities for the manufacturing and distribution facilities locating within the redeveloped brownfields site.

It is for the above stated reasons that the public sector leaders at all levels of government, and most importantly, a private developer, have made the redevelopment of the former glass plant a high priority. Extraordinary measures have been taken by the City to spur redevelopment of this site. These efforts include expending $100,000 in TIF money to perform the Phase 1& 2 site assessment of the property which remained confidential between Owens-Illinois Glass and Clark Properties. Although the City did not have access to the study, we knew that if we did not take the first step, no one would. Other TIF expenditures include $50,000 for engineering and site development and $20,000 for preparation of a development agreement between Clark Properties and the City. After seven years of difficult negotiations, Clark Properties of St. Louis, Missouri (most notably known for its brownfields redevelopment of the former General Motors plant in north St. Louis) reached a conditional agreement with Owens-Brockway of Toledo, Ohio, for the purchase of the site in May of 1997.

At this point in the project, the City of Alton has taken the lead and committed $5.5 million of bond revenue to this vital project through the use of present and future TIF revenues. However the City must be able to provide the financial and technical assistance requested to overcome the environmental and physical obstacles that presently make the project economically prohibitive. Therefore, the City of Alton is seeking assistance through this Brownfields pilot program to assist in ensuring that this important project will come to fruition.

Phase I of the development plans includes complete remediation of the entire property, the demolition of 12 dilapidated structures, the installation of all infrastructure (roads, sewers, water electric, gas, etc.), the rehabilitation of 450,000 square feet of existing warehouse space, and the creation of 74 acres of salable parcels for the new development. In total, Phase I represents a hard cost investment of $16.85 million, of which $11.3 million is for remediation, demolition, and replacement of the antiquated infrastructure system. Future phases of the project could lead to the construction of over 1 million square feet of new office space, as well as distribution and light manufacturing facilities that would generate over $35 million in new private investment and create 1000 jobs for Alton and its surrounding communities.

This project clearly meets the Clinton Administration’s Brownfields Initiative goal of seeking the economic redevelopment and sustainable reuse of an existing brownfield: It is a true collaboration of all levels of government and the private sector; will show tangible results quickly; and most importantly, will serve as a model for other communities to replicate when facing similar environmental problems.

Anaheim, CA
Location: Northeast corner of Beach Boulevard and Lincoln Avenue
Site Size: Approximately 18.3 Acres
Property Owner: Under 1 Ownership

Site description and History: The site is located in an urbanized area and at one of the busiest intersections within the City. The site was included in a recently adopted redevelopment project area. It is an economically depressed piece of property and an "eye sore" for the surrounding community. The community has indicated that priority should be given to redeveloping this site and it has been identified as an "opportunity site" for the west side of the city.

The site is comprised of three landfills: Sparkes Rains— the County operated this land fill between 1958 and 1960 for municipal household refuse; Anderson Pit — primarily used for disposal of construction/demolition wastes and other inert materials; and Davis Mud Pitt —utilized for disposal of drilling muds resulting from oil exploration. The landfills were closed approximately 30 years ago. Subsequently the site was used for a mobile home park until methane gas problems occurred. The mobile home park was then closed and the property has remained vacant since that time. It is the City's understanding that the water district monitors underground water quality on a quarterly basis and the county monitors methane and its ventilation.

Austin, TX
The Austin Brownfields Program is currently working with a developer who is interested in building an office-warehouse facility on one of the sites. Another site is being considered for redevelopment as a track and field training facility with an Olympic size running track. A third property is being considered for reuse as soccer fields. All projects are contingent upon results of the environmental site assessments.

Bangor, ME
Bangor Gas Works—Shaw’s Supermarket: A Landmark Urban Brownfield Success

After more than a century of producing coal gas for distribution to consumers throughout the Bangor urban area, the Main Utility Gas Company ceased operations nearly two decades ago. The City of Bangor acquired and cleared the site of the former coal gas production facility, which had become an industrial intrusion in a residential neighborhood. Under the direction of the Maine Department of Environmental Protection, the City undertook the removal of the remains of this antiquated industry. Clearance of several buildings and structures necessitated the removal and disposal of a half-million gallons of gasification distillates, coal tar and contaminated water.

Although known and suspected deposits of coal tar remained underground at the Gas Works site, the exhaustion of available funds meant that further remediation must await redevelopment by a willing private entity. Over a period of 15 years, uncontaminated portions of the site were used for the expansion of a neighborhood park and another portion was given to Habitat for Humanity for the volunteer construction of a single-family home for a low-income family. The contaminated portion of the site was landscaped and partially paved over for use as an over-flow parking area for the downtown and the nearby water front.

The proposal by the Boulos Company to build a 60,000 square foot building for Shaw’s Supermarkets provided the long-awaited opportunity to finally conclude the environmental remediation and redevelopment of this contaminated property. A 4-way partnership, consisting of the City of Bangor, the Boulos Company, the Maine Department of Environmental Protection and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, set about to determine the nature and extent of the site’s hazards and to creatively devise a workable remediation plan. Exploration revealed that substantial sub-surface quantities of semi-solid coal tar could be permanently stabilized in place as an integral part of the site development for the supermarket and the material would present no danger to the users of the development nor to the surrounding neighborhood. Upon the review and approval by the environmental protection agencies of a thorough remedial action plan, the in-ground contaminants where isolated and immobilized in place during the redevelopment of the site in the spring and summer of 1996. Site work and construction of the supermarket was completed in November of 1996 and the new Shaw’s Supermarket was opened to the public on November 10. Public response to the new store has been very positive, with employment and sales matching expectations.

Over a period of 18 years, the City of Bangor has expended a total of $1.7 million for the acquisition, clearance, environmental mitigation and site improvements at this 6 plus acre site. The developer has invested $7 million in developing the building and associated site improvements. Shaw’s Supermarkets has invested $1.8 million in equipment and furnishings for the store. Financing of this project included over $350,000 in federal CDBG funds and tax-increment financing of $975,000 for the store.

The benefits and beneficiaries of this landmark urban brownfield redevelopment project are numerous: residents of the immediate neighborhood no longer worry about possible long-term health or safety hazards emanating from the former coal gasification facility; the central and southwest quadrants of the city benefit from their only full-service supermarket; property taxpayers city-wide benefit from a privately owned commercial development back on the City tax rolls; and the community benefits from the creation of hundreds of new jobs.

Bangor International Airport Commercial/Industrial Park: Redevelopment of Former Military Facility for the Growth of Jobs and Tax Base

The 2,200 acre Dow Air Force Base was closed in 1968 and, in great part, was deeded to the City of Bangor. A large portion of the base between the aeronautical airfield and commercially developed Union Street have been zoned for commercial and industrial uses, cleared of former military facilities, and subdivided for redevelopment. Former uses of this land included runways, taxiways, aircraft parking ramps, aircraft servicing and refueling pads, fuel-testing laboratory and administrative facilities, and streets and vehicle parking areas.

The land between the Maine Air National Guard Base and Godfrey Boulevard (on the site of a former runway) was subdivided into the current 81.46 acre, 24-lot PIA Commercial/Industrial Park. Thirteen of the lots have been redeveloped and currently contain:

  •  Two industrial manufacturers: General Electric Corporation, manufacturer of steam turbines, and Eldur Corporation, manufacturer of electrical components;

  •  One corporate headquarters: Irving Oil, USA;

  •  Two government agencies: Maine Department of Human Services, and U.S.D.A;

  •  One retail auto dealer; and

  •  Four service businesses: a branch bank, a fitness club, a banquet facility, and a household storage facility.

    Another three lots are under purchase and sale option for the development of a government office building and a telecommunications facility. Of the remaining eight lots, two are known to be contaminated with the residues of a former air base. Fuels, lubricants and solvents are present in the soils at a former aircraft refueling stand and a fuel testing laboratory. Site investigation and exploration carried out by the U.S. Corps of Engineers and private environmental engineers have located and identified volatile organic compounds associated with fuels, lubricants, and solvents which where employed by former military operation.

    Future development of these contaminated lots will require the documentation of approved remediation actions to remove, isolate or stabilize these contaminants prior to the financing of the sale and development of these sites. It is the contention of the City of Bangor that the federal government is responsible for the contamination and, therefore, the cleanup of these sites to a degree satisfactory to the Maine Department of Environmental Protection for the issuance of a letter of no further enforcement action conditioned upon the completion of an approved remediation plan.

    Ongoing efforts by the prospective developer of these lots, General Electric, the City of Bangor, the Maine Department of Environmental Protection, S.W.Cole Geotechnical and Environmental Engineers, and the U.S. Corps of Engineers are attempting to resolve these environmental issues in a time frame which will not delay the prospective developer’s expansion program. Failure to accomplish this goal will jeopardize the expansion of the steam turbine plant.

    Redevelopment of the former Maine Central Railroad Yard in the Penobscot River Waterfront Redevelopment Area

    The Penobscot River Waterfront Redevelopment site was formerly an industrial area. Previous uses include a railroad yard and locomotive maintenance roundhouse, a coal storage yard, petroleum storage tanks, shoe assembly plant, a paper company warehouse. The site has been acquired by the city in stages over the last 15 years. Recently the City of Bangor purchased the largest and last portion of the site — the railroad yard and maintenance facility — for about one million dollars.

    The site has now been cleared of its former railroad facilities, with only one of the many original railroad tracks remaining, the main line track which serves rail customers in a two county area. The track runs parallel to and between the Penobscot River and Main Street, thus dividing a large redevelopment parcel of nearly 23 acres. The portion of the parcel between the tracks and Main Street have a poor soil condition due to the remains of years of spilled hydraulic train fluids, fuels, lubricants, and oils which permeate the soils. For several years, the Maine Central Railroad and the City of Bangor have worked to investigate the site for hazardous materials. Location of known and suspected contamination has been mapped and a remediation plan has been developed to remedy the problem.

    Since the City purchased the rail yard, it has been implementing the remediation plan in accordance with a letter of no further enforcement action issued by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection. Remedial actions include passive recovery of volatile organic compounds from near the round house locomotive maintenance facility, isolation or removal of contaminated soil at a locomotive refueling stand and over fill of the entire surface area of the former rail yards. To date, costs of this environmental cleanup have amounted to approximately $160,000. Another $100,000 is estimated to be spent to complete the remediation during 1999 so that the development site may be marketed upon completion of a $150,000 waterfront redevelopment plan and the relocation of the remaining main line track.

    It is anticipated that the Main Street side of the site will be commercially redeveloped for waterfront-related uses: perhaps a first-class hotel and convention center with retail and office space. The river side of the site is expected to be developed into a public use park with walking trails connecting to both downtown and the Bass Park recreation facilities. Also being considered are a Shakespeare Festival amphitheater, historic displays and markers, and small groves of native trees and indigenous rock formations. Shore-side attractions for visitors and tourists may include a boardwalk, a museum ship, a Maine Products Pavilion, and associated retail and restaurant space.

    The City recognizes that its waterfront offers one of the city’s greatest remaining development opportunities, and that what occurs there in the next decade may help define the character of Bangor for the 21st century. The approximate $3 million investment the City is making in its waterfront is an investment in the economic future of the city, and that investment must be made with both careful planning and meaningful community input.

    Bellingham, WA
    Holly Street Landfill

    The City of Bellingham, WA, is in the pre-acquisition stage of a project to redevelop the former Sash and Door Hardware site on Holly Street in the city’s Old Town area. The Sash and Door Company closed its store at the site in 1993 after building a new store at the edge of town.

    The two acre property, vacant for a time, is now leased to a recycled building supply store and for other storage. The contaminated fill materials that form the site, which is on former tidelands, complicate redevelopment of the deteriorated property. The property, called the Holly Street Landfill, is on the State of Washington Department of Ecology, Hazardous Sites List.

    The location is critical to the City’s current focus on redevelopment of the Old Town Area. Improving the property’s blighted appearance, restoring the health of Whatcom Creek (which forms the southern border of the site), and providing public access along the creek bank are essential components of the areas redevelopment plan.

    The City’s strategy is to acquire the site, complete remediation and redevelopment for an as yet unidentified use. Development will likely involve some form of private participation. Public access will be reserved along Whatcom Creek on the southern border of the site.

    Update on Central Waterfront Brownfield Site: The project has proceeded slowly due to economic changes for the manufacturer and an adjustment of roles in the development. Recently the manufacturer has decided to move ahead with warehouse and master planning for the remainder of the area.

    Bridgeport, CT
    Harbor Yard Ballpark

    May 12 was Opening Day at the new Harbor Yard Ballpark. The $19 million, 5,500 seat ballpark in downtown Bridgeport is home of the Bridgeport Bluefish baseball team. In 1998, their inaugural season, the Bluefish drew over 300,000 fans. Just two years ago, this was the former Jenkins Valve and Sprague Meter site, which was once Bridgeport’s most noticeable brownfield.

    Identified through the EPA Assessment Grant as one of the City’s six sites with the greatest potential for redevelopment, the 8.5 acre, three-parcel, Jenkins Valve/Sprague Meter site is located south of Bridgeport's downtown teardrop off of Main and Broad Street. The site is physically separated from downtown by the I-95 overpass to the north, while a raised railroad track serving Amtrak and Conrail borders the site to the south, and the Pequennock River and Bridgeport Harbor to the east. The site is easily accessible to I-95, Route 8, commuter train and ferry. Before redevelopment, the City of Bridgeport owned almost half of the site. The City of Bridgeport, through a combination of city bond funds and private investment, acquired the property, relocated businesses, and built the City owned stadium with the Bridgeport Bluefish as the primary tenant.

    Located on one parcel of the site were the Jenkins Valve facility and former Sprague Meter Company buildings, vacant for over 15 years, which measured approximately 441,000 square feet ranging from one to five stories. These have been demolished to make way for the baseball field.

    Another parcel contains a five story building of approximately 160,000 square feet and a two story building of approximately 40,000 square feet, both of which have only the bottom floor occupied. These sites will be demolished in the next year to create parking and retail/commercial space to complement the ballpark.

    Bryant Electric Company

    The City of Bridgeport's most notable brownfield success story was the 12-acre Bryant Electric property in the City's West End. The West End is home to more than sixty manufacturers surrounded by the presence of several large underutilized and obsolete industrial properties. In 1988, after Bryant Electric ceased operations in the century old 500,000 square foot facility, Westinghouse explored adaptive reuse scenarios for the factory buildings without success until 1992. Spurred by a demand for industrial land for new construction, a partnership was formed that allowed Westinghouse to dispose of the property while simplifying the company’s compliance with RCRA and the Connecticut Property Transfer Act.

    Westinghouse remediated environmental conditions that existed within the Bryant Electric building structure, and the City, with funding from the State of Connecticut, commissioned the demolition of the structures, which allowed Westinghouse to undertake subsurface remediation measures. Westinghouse agreed to sell the cleared and cleaned property to the City for $1 with a pledge to complete the remediation to federal and state standards.

    In the period of years that Bryant Electric sat idle, the adjacent city blocks suffered from divestment, attributable to the visible deterioration of the factory itself. In cooperation with the West End Community Development Corporation (WECDC), a nonprofit neighborhood development corporation, the city adopted a redevelopment plan for the neighborhood. The City of Bridgeport sought and received an additional $10 million from the State of Connecticut and $2 million from the U.S. Housing and Urban Development, which were used to: reclaim adjacent industrially zoned land for an industrial park; separate incompatible land uses that plagued both business and residents; stabilize an important business neighborhood; and construct a Police Precinct. Another $2 million was secured from the State of Connecticut to clean additional brownfields in the neighborhood.

    The West End Industrial Park — 12 acres centered on the former Bryant Electric site — has shown tremendous promise for private investment: the City has already dedicated 4 acres to a manufacturer that has committed to a $7 million capital investment and another manufacturing company has entered discussions with the City regarding the construction of a new 100,000 square foot facility with a total capital investment approaching $15 million. The partnership of private sector and neighborhood interests with local, state and federal governments has resulted in a dramatic reversal of fortunes in a business neighborhood once at risk.

    RemGrit Site

    The RemGrit site is one of the largest brownfields in the city with the greatest redevelopment potential. It was once a munition factory and now sits nearly idle, adding to the neighborhood’s blight, housing a small number of manufacturers.

    RemGrit, a 28 acre brownfield whose 1 million square feet of unusable building space spans the area between two of Bridgeport's main industrial and commercial corridors (Boston and Barnum Avenues), is suspected to be littered with asbestos, lead and contaminated soils. Liens on the property, including a $4 million dollar property tax bill, and an owner without resources to assess or clean up the site are the real hurdles to its return to productive use.

    The City has been pro-active in targeting this site, and is actively attempting to induce redevelopment. As part of the Showcase of Collaboration with New Haven and the Naugatuck Valley, the City of Bridgeport has received $200,000 from EPA, $100,000 of which will be used to begin Phase I and Phase II investigations. The City of Bridgeport is also a Pilot recipient of up to $200,000 from the State of Connecticut’s newly created Special Contaminated Properties Remediation and Insurance Fund to continue the environmental assessment of this site.

    RemGrit is located in the middle of a neighborhood currently undergoing an extensive planning study from which specific Action Areas and a Master Development Plan will be created. The City of Bridgeport will continue to tackle these hurdles to make the RemGrit brownfield one of the next success stories.

    Burlington, VT

    The Brownfields Pilot has been instrumental in the move of Metalworks (a welding and fabrication shop) into a vacant building stigmatized by contamination. The former site of Exxon’s oil storage and transport operation, Metalworks’ new building has been vacant for fifteen years. An underground storage tank with a mix of contaminants was removed several years ago, and Exxon is still pumping out 5,000 gallons of contaminated groundwater per day. A range of issues were addressed with assistance from the Pilot including: clarifying liability (that will release Metalworks from responsibility for remediation) changing zoning issues for the rehabilitation of the structure; removing asbestos; working with the state to understand the risk levels presented by the contamination; obtaining financing; and assisting with energy efficient lighting and weatherization. The Pilot was able to access enough historical data from state files and local records to save significantly on site assessment costs. The closing for the building is to take place this month, with renovations beginning immediately after.

    The Pilot Coordinator and Assistant Director for Economic Development teamed up to accomplish the tasks necessary for Metalworks to move. A local business with roots in the City, Metalworks is experiencing a healthy growth in sales and contracts.

    Urban Reserve

    The Urban Reserve is a forty-five acre parcel of prime waterfront property acquired by the City from Vermont Railway and held in "public trust." After intensive public process, a determination will be made as to the future use of the site. It was formerly a petroleum storage and transportation facility, covered with large above ground bulk gas, oil, and jet fuel storage tanks. The city removed the last bulk storage tank two years ago, and the Brownfields Pilot has led the effort to complete the site cleanup. Three UST’s and an oil/water separator were just removed from the "Astroline" site on the Urban Reserve, utilizing municipal bond monies. The Pilot arranged for the funding, and has handled all bidding, contracting, site supervision, and publicity on the project. This has been a true collaborative effort between CEDO, Public Works, and Parks.

    The next phase will involve the removal of asbestos and several abandoned buildings. Then concrete paving will be broken up and removed, and grading and seeding will follow. A comprehensive planning process has commenced, and the Pilot will assist in gathering information from the public over the next year. In addition, a contract for the Phase II assessment of the property was issued in January 1999.

    Petco Station/ Lake Champlain Housing

    Lake Champlain Housing, a non-profit affordable housing organization, has gained site control of the former Petco Service Station on Riverside Avenue. This property, on a busy street, has been vacant and a blight to the neighborhood for the past ten years. The previous owner of the property was asking a price that did not reflect the contamination problems on the site, and was not willing to acknowledge the financial and environmental liabilities of the site. However, the combination of a failed transaction and a forward-thinking employee changed the stance of the previous owner. A Phase I investigation (privately funded) revealed the potential for migrating petroleum and/or solvents emanating from UST’s and activities associated with automotive service operations.

    The Brownfields Pilot Coordinator has acted as a mediator between the state and the previous owner, and is working closely with Lake Champlain Housing. A purchase and sales agreement scopes out a Phase II investigation and details liability for cleanup and future third party claims and/or investigations. Lake Champlain Housing plans to construct a building that will include their administrative offices and several units of affordable housing. The Pilot will help Lake Champlain Housing lobby for a completed remediation and state funding under the Petroleum Contingency Fund.

    Butte, MT
    Clark Tailings/Old Butte Municipal Landfill
    Size: 60 acres
    Past Use: Mining/Landfill

    Community Impact: Reclamation of a large mine tailings and solid waste site impacting the area’s land and ground water, and the eventual construction of a complex for American Legion and Babe Ruth baseball.

    Description: Through the combination of CERCLA and RCRA sites, the Old Butte Municipal Landfill and the Clark/Colorado Tailings site were able to be consolidated as one waste unit under RCRA and subsequently remediated. The City-County government and the responsible party for the tailings site, the Atlantic Richfield Company, agreed to terms that will allow for a first-class recreational complex including baseball and softball fields, tennis courts, a golf driving range, playground areas, and open/picnic spaces. Remediation of the area will consist of the construction of an impermeable, revegetated cap over the waste. At present, the cap has been completed and the final design for the park is pending. Once the design is finalized and a contractor is awarded the bid, the recreational complex will be constructed during the summer/fall of 1999.

    Prior to the parties’ agreement, the site was useless open industrial waste space, consisting of weeds, exposed mine waste, and capped municipal garbage. Contamination of the groundwater with both inorganic and organic constituents remains a problem but is being addressed under a Corrective Measure Plan, which includes the impermeable cap constructed for the tailings area, a passive venting system for the landfill, and regular well monitoring.

    Charleston, SC
    The City has identified a primary site and several alternative sites for our brownfields project. The primary site is the former Charleston County Landfill. It is a 0.2 acre parcel of land located on the Cooper River in the Bayside Manor neighborhood. The county has already spent close to $5 million to cap the landfill. However, in recent years a substance has been bubbling up through the ground surface at an apartment community adjacent to the site. The City considered placing a Convention Center on this site several years ago but another site was chosen over this site due to environmental concerns. The City proposes to use funds from EPA to complete the site identification, environmental site assessment, and risk assessment phases of the project; to develop a remediation and redevelopment plan; and to coordinate outreach activities in the Enterprise Community.

    The Beach Company, the current landowner of the landfill, has committed to including this tract as a primary site for consideration in this project. Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC), a 501(C)(3) that performed South Carolina’s first brownfield redevelopment resources alliance, will coordinate the site identification and assessment phases of the project and prepare the remediation and redevelopment plan. The Medical University of South Carolina will conduct the risk assessment and coordinate outreach activities to the community through their Environmental Hazard Assessment Program (EHAP) will conduct a public health assessment in conjunction with the risk assessment. Outreach activities will be conducted to keep the community informed and insure that the community’s concerns are addressed.

    CTC will coordinate the use of innovative technologies developed in South Carolina at the DOE Savannah River Site to remediate the site, if applicable, in accordance with the remediation and redevelopment plan.

    Chicago, IL
    8801 South Woodlawn

    This seven acre brownfield site is located on the far south side of the City at 8801 South Woodlawn, Chicago, Illinois. By way of background, in 1979 the Burnside Steel Foundry formerly located on this site closed following an explosion at the facility. Subsequently, the company went bankrupt and abandoned the property. The property remained abandoned until the City acquired it in 1995 through the Tax Reactivation Program, along with an adjacent parcel to the South. The southern parcel is now part of a larger $31 million expansion being done by an adjacent steel press company. The subject site remains undeveloped because of the presence of stockpiled slag. The cost to remove this slag has been estimated at $8 million. Given the recent development surrounding this property and the adjacent viable business, the property has significant redevelopment potential, but for the costly remediation due to the presence of the slag. Providing a potential end-user with the ability to finance the remediation at this site may provide the necessary incentive to spur development at this site. Many industrial end-users have expressed interest in this site, but are looking for financial assistance to perform the clean up.

    Pershing Road

    In December 1998, the Board of Education will vacate a major building in the Stockyards Industrial Corridor leaving behind an obsolete building on 24 acres of land. The Board of Education plans to donate the building to the City. The property is ideally located on a major road with ideal frontage for an industrial company. Developers and brokers looking to redevelop the property have all confirmed that without demolishing the buildings, the site will serve little purpose and will remain empty and unused for years to come. Behind the Board of Education is another 13 acre parcel that could be assembled, following cleanup, to create a 37 acre industrial park, a rare opportunity in this sought after area. Companies are looking to reside in the Stockyards because of its prime location in an established industrial setting. However, due to the high costs of demolition and cleanup, the site will remain a brownfields and undeveloped if the City does not take the appropriate steps to demolish the buildings.

    At this time, the City has been approached by a developer who is interested in locating a manufacturing/distribution company at this site. This company would create approximately 200 jobs for community residents. However, the costs of demolition and cleanup remain too high for the project to work. As a Tax Increment Finance Area, the Stockyards provides an ideal finance tool for attracting strong companies to the site. Demolition and cleanup funding is essential in order for this property to be developed.

    Cleveland, OH

    Vesper Corporation /Cleveland Gear Company, Inc.

    This project involves the expansion of Cleveland Gear in an older sector of the City. It is the first major new construction of a manufacturing facility in that area in approximately 50 years. The total project cost is $12,350,000. This figure includes land acquisition, hydro-carbon remediation costs, new construction and the acquisition of machinery and equipment. The project funding sources are a State of Ohio 166 loan, a State of Ohio 412 grant, a low interest City of Cleveland loan, loan funds from the Cuyahoga County, an Industrial Revenue Bond and the company’s equity investment. Phase I and II Environmental Surveys have been conducted. Cleveland Gear will seek a Covenant Not to Sue.

    The expansion area is a four acre site on which a 80,000 square foot manufacturing facility (with expansion potential for 120,000 square feet) is being constructed. The four acre site was being used as a junk yard. The major challenge to development is the soil conditions. The project is expected to have a significant impact on the community due to the following actors: retention of 149 jobs and the creation of 48 jobs, this project addresses both immediate and projected expansion needs, ability to provide company/community with a landscaped campus setting and an agreement on Cleveland Gear’s part to train and hire Cleveland residents with a focus on the immediate neighborhood.

    Walworth Run Industrial Park

    This 14.5 acre industrial park is located in the former stockyards area of Cleveland. The area was once littered with holding pens, slaughtered houses and breweries. A few related businesses remain in the area including meat rendering and sausage making plants. The non-profit Westside Industrial Retention & Expansion Network (WIRE-Net) is acting as the developer on this project. The former uses of this site are residential, a brewery, an auto repair garage and a bar. The land was acquired form four sources with the majority owner being the State of Ohio. The residences had been demolished long ago when Inter-State 71 was constructed. The Brewery had also been demolished prior to WIRE-Net taking title to the land.

    One of the main impediments to development was neighborhood disinvestment. Developers were hesitant to invest in an area mostly filled by aging, obsolete and sometimes vacant manufacturing facilities. However, WIRE-Net is pleased that the park’s first tenant will be constructing their new facility with no public subsidy.

    Total project costs for land acquisition, predevelopment and remediation are $970,600. The funding sources include a State of Ohio 442 grant, one City of Cleveland low-interest loan and another at zero percent interest, a small grant from Village Capital Corporation (an affiliate of the local non-profit neighborhood Progress, Inc.), a small low interest loan from Local Initiatives Support Corporation and an equity investment. Most park parcels are available for sale. WIRE-Net received "No further action" letters on most of the park.

    Collinwood Yards

    A private developer acquired this site from an individual owner in 1997. Collinwood Yards was built over decades by New York Central Railroad across a 49 acre site in historically middle-class neighborhood. The site once served as Conrail’s main repair and freight transfer yard between New York and Chicago. Employment at the site peaked at 2,000 but had dropped off dramatically by the early 1980s. Early estimated remediation costs at $2 million created the largest challenge to redevelopment. The park is currently at 2/3rd occupancy. Seventeen acres were re-acquired by Conrail (now CSX) for the development of an Inter-Modal facility. An additional 13 acres were acquired by a local company that makes tooling equipment.

    The City joined with the State in assisting the developer with the remediation challenges. Remediation costs were offset by a 442 State of Ohio grant and a low interest loan with a grant component. The sites excellent highway access made the property very desirable. The developer was able to quickly identify two end-users. The State and the City also participated in infrastructure improvements.

    In addition to retained and created employment, the greatest impact has been on neighborhood pride. The park is located adjacent to an interstate on-ramp and a major commercial thoroughfare. Literally thousands people each day witness the new development and reinvestment taking place within the City.

    Columbus, OH
    Completed Projects: Remediation of Sites at the Four Corners Development Project

    In 1997, Livable Community Funds were allocated for a $2.2 million transit center to be built at the corners of Cleveland and Eleventh Avenues in the South Linden neighborhood, one of the poorest areas of Columbus. This was one element of a multi-pronged development that had seen no private development in 30 years.

    Twelve parcels were optioned for the transit center site. The Ohio EPA performed Phase One evaluations of all sites. Two were found to have modest contamination. The Ohio EPA performed Phase Two assessments and the site was remediated as part of the demolition work. Ground was broken for construction of the transit center in October. Construction is expected to be complete by September 1, 1999.

    Projects in Process: The Penn West Site

    In 1996, Nationwide Insurance, headquartered in Columbus, Ohio, announced plans for construction of a major arena on the site of a former prison. Sites around it are prime for development, but much of the land has been used for manufacturing in the past. Preliminary Phase One work undertaken by the City indicates significant testing and remediation work must be undertaken to spur development.

    The City is in discussions with the Columbus EPA Pilot Project about undertaking Phase One and Phase Two assessments through a professional certified by the Ohio EPA Voluntary Action Program. These assessments could define the extent of contamination on lands adjacent to the planned arena and help attract private redevelopment of the area.

    Projects Under Development: Neighborhood Clean-Up

    The majority of land in the old neighborhoods of Columbus is not contaminated and is being used productively. Abandoned and vacant sites, however, are usually contaminated and drag down adjacent property values. The Columbus Brownfield Task Force, established through a recent EPA Pilot Grant, is exploring the use of funds to redevelop the old scrap yards and abandoned gas stations, and factories that prevent expansion of productive uses in older business districts.

    A typical brownfield redevelopment of this sort is one consisting of seven parcels ranging in size from half an acre to one acre and under ownership of five separate individuals. Two businesses, both scrap yards, are in place on the site. It is believed that there are local employers nearby who might be retained to purchase the remediated land for expansion. The City’s subgrantee for the Pilot Project, the Columbus Urban Growth Corporation, is assembling the land for testing, remediation, and redevelopment.

    Dallas, TX
    This 22.5 acre site, which was first developed as early as 1892, is located in a federally-designated Enterprise Community. Commercial/industrial use began in about 1905 and continued until the mid 1960s. Site buildings were razed and removed in the 1970s. Previous on-site occupants and activities, producing environmental concerns included: a former gasoline station, a metal finishing operation, chemical warehouses, electrical distribution substations, a battery manufacturing company, automotive repair facilities, and a paint and varnish manufacturing company. Environmental concerns identified and addressed included an underground petroleum storage tank, heavy metals, including lead, and hydrocarbon and solvent contamination.

    Entrepreneurs purchased the site for $2 million from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation which had already spent $800,000 toward environmental cleanup. The new owners spent an additional $2 million for cleanup; entered into the Texas Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP); and received a VCP Certificate of Completion in October 1996. An EPA Comfort Letter was issued in November 1996.

    An 11.6 acre portion of the site was sold to JPI, a multifamily residential developer who began construction in January 1997 of Jefferson North End, a 540-unit multi-family residential complex, which includes 108 units dedicated to affordable housing. Leasing began on February 14, 1998.

    Jefferson North End is the City of Dallas’ first completed brownfields success story. It was the site of the May 1, 1996 signing ceremony for the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the EPA Region 6 and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. The site has been profiled on local, state, national, and international levels and was featured in a HUD Enterprise Community/Enterprise Zone satellite broadcast in January 1998.

    The City of Dallas has provided a 10-year tax abatement to assist the developers of this project. The private dollars invested total approximately $37.3 million and 50 jobs have been created.

    Danbury, CT
    Brownfield Site: 13 Barnum Court
    Location: North Central Danbury
    Size: 0.25

    Past Use: Hat Factories Retail. Site is currently a vacant lot with no buildings. City foreclosed on property in 1995 due to tax delinquency.

    Impact on Community: Sale of property is not possible without remediation of site contaminants. Children in neighborhood play on lot.

    Major Impediments to redevelopment: Need buyer for property. Site needs to be remediated prior to City auction of property for commercial or industrial use. Environmental land restriction use. Environmental land use restriction-residential use of site is not feasible.

    Remediation Highlights: An evaluation of in-site technology of "phyto-remediation" (use of deep rooted plants to absorb pollutants from the soil) to cleanse mercury from the site is in progress.

    Brownfield Site: Mallory Hat Factory
    Location: Central Danbury
    Size: 4.1

    Past Use: Hat Factory. Site is now vacant. Buildings are structurally unstable. City foreclosed on site in 1994 due to tax delinquency.

    Impact on Community: Homeless populations have occupied vacant buildings. Numerous fires set daily for heat. Concern about public safety due to fires and crime in building.

    Major Impediments to Redevelopment: Adjoining business has interests in using property as parking lot, if City completes investigations of contaminants.

    Remediation Highlights: Brownfield Site assessments including survey of buildings for asbestos co-mingled with other hazardous wastes are not being initiated. Property transfer agreement with adjoining business owner is being negotiated, that would allow demolition of buildings and building of parking lot.

    Brownfield Site: 11 Jensen Street
    Location: South Central Danbury
    Size: 1.3

    Past Use: Printed circuit board manufacture. Vacant building on site. City foreclosed due to tax delinquency.

    Impact on Community: Site next to Danbury’s primary watercourse, just upstream from Greenway project.

    Major Impediments to Redevelopment: City needs assurance that prospective buyer of property will, indeed, follow through on clean-up of property and river bank.

    Remediation Highlights: Although the City has a Brownfield grant for site assessments, prospective buyer wants to purchase property from City and assume remediation investigations and clean-up. If this is the case, the City will relinquish control of clean-up and use Brownfield funds earmarked for this site for another purpose.

    Dearborn, MI
    Sharon Steel, Brownfield Redevelopment Project

    Sharon Steel is a former steel annealing and pickling operation, which began in 1932 and operated until 1989 when Sharon Steel Corporation filed for bankruptcy. The 11 acre site containing three buildings totaling 148,000 square feet has been vacant since 1989 and was controlled by U.S. Bankruptcy court for Western Pennsylvania.

    Through Dearborn’s participation in a US EPA Pilot Grant Program with the Down River Area Brownfield Consortium, significant site investigation has been completed. The site has five underground storage tanks containing various petroleum and waste substance, PCB stained floor and PCB filled transformers, asbestos roofing and pipe wrap, and various contaminates through the site.

    Based on the information obtained from the site investigation, remediation costs were determined to be economically feasible to redevelop the site for single family residential. A private developer recently bid to acquire the property from the bankruptcy court and his offer has been tentatively approved.

    The developer has approached the City to assist in the redevelopment which would construct about 48 residential structures on the site. The City is facilitating re-zoning the site from industrial to residential. Additionally, the developer is seeking technical assistance from the City's staff and is requesting that the City sponsor an application for a Michigan Site Reclamation Grant.

    Development of the site is expected to take approximately two years. Ultimately, we will see an obsolete, environmentally contaminated property replaced with new housing. Property value will increase from its’ current $800,000 to over $9,600,000 after build out. This project will rejuvenate this neighborhood, encourage surrounding homeowners to reinvest in their properties and help stabilize our community.

    Beech Street

    For over forty years, a 7,740 square foot building located on a 1/4 acre site at 22038 Beech Street was used as a light industrial plating operation providing employment and taxes to the City. Since about 1990, this building has deteriorated and sat idle; detracting from a predominantly residential surrounding neighborhood.

    Because of the property’s past use, it was believed the site was contaminated and would need substantial environmental remediation prior to reuse. Over the past few years, developers weighed the cost of conducting necessary environmental studies and found the price too risky just to learn how many funds may be required to remediate the site.

    Recently, the City of Dearborn, through a US EPA Brownfield Pilot Project, was able to conduct environmental investigations at the site. To everyone’s surprise, only minimal contamination was discovered which required minor remediation. Based on this factual information, a developer quickly purchased the property with plans to develop a new medical office building.

    Demolition has recently occurred and the new facility will provide employment opportunities to about 16 medical staff. Additionally, the value of the property will increase from $114,300 to $1,800,000 and will be reflected in various property taxes associated with value. An eyesore building will be replaced with an attractive, productive facility, which will complement rather than detract from the surrounding neighborhood.

    Denver, CO

    Sand Creek Brownfields Pilot Project

    The pilot received a $75,000 EPA grant, which was exhausted by the end of the grant period, December 31, 1997. The pilot also benefited from an EPA Interdepartmental Personnel Assignment, which provided a project coordinator for the pilot, with a match of $5,000 from the cities involved. Major projects included initial focus groups, a Brownfields Policy Forum, outreach to lenders, a number of smaller projects including financial support to a "Creating Partners in Revitalization" forum, and day-to-day, site-by-site efforts working with lenders, property owners/buyers, real estate agents. A Colorado Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund for new site remediation projects has been established using a $350,000 EPA grant. The pilot area consists of several different sites along the Denver, Commerce City boundary. Most of the individual sites are in Commerce City, with one, the Northside Treatment Plant, in Denver.

    Northside Treatment Plant

    This site (52 acres, plus an 18 acre adjoining detention pond) not only had the stigma from previous use as a waste water treatment plant but was also contaminated with heavy metals’ contamination from the nearby ASARCO Globe Plant, which is being cleaned up by the company at its expense. The Sand Creek Pilot provided $18,200 for evaluation studies of reuse on the site and its structures. The plan, which is now being implemented, includes a $7,000,000 Colorado National Guard Armory ($5,000,000 in federal funds for construction), a park with amenities including a pond with wildlife viewing area, and a 22.5 acre portion to be marketed for new industrial and commercial use. The project was partially enabled by the North Denver River Restoration Project ($10,000,000 overall cost) which among other things removes approximately 300 acres (including the Northside site) from the flood plain. A HUD, Community Development Block Grant funded $1.4 million of this with the rest coming from Denver Waste Water Management Division, Urban Drainage and Great Outdoors of Colorado. The Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration is funding $800,000 of the estimated $1.5 million treatment plant facilities demolition and asbestos removal cost. Demolition is nearly complete; funds are still needed to complete the road for access to serve the property.

    North Stapleton/Commerce City Brownfields Demonstration Project

    EPA has very recently funded a $200,000 Brownfields grant to address concerns related to a chlorinated solvent ground water plume crossing the former Stapleton International Airport site and continuing into Commerce City. The project restoration of values study, developer outreach and a strategic document. The "kick off" meeting for the project was held August 27, 1997.

    Colorado Voluntary Cleanup Program

    There have been a number of successful cleanups and No Further Action Determinations in Denver under this program, which remediates or clears a site according to an approved plan, for a specific use. These include: The ROBCO site (a former Denver Radium Site with residual heavy metals contamination, which was developed as a retail building materials outlet); an abandoned landfill with buried drums at the former Stapleton International Airport which is being remediated as part of a park site; the Colorado Ocean Journey (an Aquarium) site which had soil and ground water contamination from a number of former industrial uses at the site; St. Luke’s Hospital, which is being developed into new housing after clean up of fuel oils and solvents in soils and ground water; and the Pepsi Center Arena site from which metals and PAH’s from soils and ground water are being cleaned up.

    Additional Candidate Brownfield Sites

    The Sand Creek Brownfields Pilot Steering Committee discussed mechanisms to bring additional sites into the Brownfields process. Advertisements and press releases were placed in local newspapers and the "Environmental Market Place News" publicizing the availability of Pilot Project staff and experience and expertise to help in Brownfield-related property transfers. There was no response. There was discussion about development of an organization to create coalitions among local community groups, lenders, developers, local jurisdictions and regulators to identify additional sites, bring them into the process and perform site assessments and other development related activities.

    Some sites in Denver which may be potential Brownfields candidates include: the RAMP industries site (an abandon radioactive materials reprocess which is now being cleaned up by an EPA removal action), the area around the ASARCO Globe Plant which, although under remediation by ASARCO, may suffer from some stigma; Industrial Hard Chrome Plating (an abandon chrome plating shop also the subject of an EPA removal action); and a large number of abandoned landfills in Denver which need site assessments and various remedial actions prior to any redevelopment.

    Fairfield, CA

    There are two known Brownfield sites in the City of Fairfield. The first is Travis Air Force Base and the second is an abandoned Water Treatment Facility. In addition, there are thirty-seven (37) Underground Storage Container sites at various locations throughout the City.

    Travis Air Force Base is a Superfund site and although clean-up of the base is a benefit, the clean-up will not generate any new jobs or increase the City’s tax base. The City is currently awaiting Brownfield funds for the clean-up of the abandoned Water Treatment Facility. The possible re-development of the site could potentially bring in new jobs. However, there is no estimate to the number of jobs or if the site would increase the City’s tax revenues. Only a few of the Underground Storage Containers sites will impede development.

    The Travis Air Force Base site consists of 900 acres and the abandoned Water Treatment Facility encompasses 27.5 acres. Each of the Underground Storage Container sites contains a quarter (.25) to one-half (.5) of an acre.

    Fayetteville, AR

    The R&P Electroplating, Inc., located at 2000 Pump Station Road in the industrial area of the City of Fayetteville, Arkansas, is situated on a tract of land 340' x 739' containing approximately 5.77 acres. The east boundary of the property is adjacent to the West Fork of the White River and to the Combs Park, a City park.

    R&P Electroplating ceased operations in May 1997. Prior to that time, discharges from the plant to the wastewater treatment facility exceeded the metal limits that had been established for them on several occasions during the years of 1994, 1995, and 1996. The facility was vandalized on August 22, 1998, creating a release of an undetermined amount of various hazardous substances. On August 25, 1998, the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology (ADPC&E) issued a verbal Order of the Director for the facility owners to secure the site and retain an emergency services contract. The owner complied with the order.

    ADPC&E collected environmental samples that were analyzed for total metals plus cyanide in October of 1998.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) became involved and cleanup began at the site on January 26, 1999. The cleanup work is being done under the supervision of EPA and their contractor, C.T. Environmental. It is not known at this time whether all of the buildings, which have approximately 40,000 square feet under roof, will be razed during the cleanup process. The cleanup work is expected to take approximately three months, at which time it is anticipated the property will again be suitable for use as an industrial site. The cleanup cost is estimated to be around one million dollars.

    Fort Wayne, IN

    Bowser Pump Site

    The Bowser Pump Plant is a 12.5 acre property that was formerly the headquarters of an oil pump manufacturer. Subsequent owners have used it as warehouse space, but by 1995, the site was tax delinquent and abandoned with nearly 600,000 tires stored inside the buildings. The State was pursuing action against the prior owners to clean up the tires; however the legal battle was proceeding rather slowly. Furthermore, the site is located in the Hanna-Creighton Neighborhood, which is one of the most economically distressed Census Tracts in the State of Indiana. In an effort to stabilize this high crime neighborhood, the City of Fort Wayne located its Police Operations Center in the old Bowser Office Building, which was adjacent to the abandoned Pump Plant, in the Fall of 1994. Subsequently, the City and its landlord, the McMillen Foundations, have made $740,000 in building improvements, and the City is considering additional site improvements of up to $1,000,000.00 by the end of 1999.

    The Fort Wayne Brownfield Forum, which was established in August of 1995, identified the Bowser Pump Plant as a potential brownfield redevelopment pilot project for the community. Therefore, in July of 1997, the City initiated conversations with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management to expedite the removal of tires, with or without the resolution of the court case against the prior owners, and to conduct environmental testing. Unfortunately, before any action could be taken by the State and the City, the site burned in a 1997 Labor Day tire fire. The fire necessitated the evacuation of the Fort Wayne Police Department and about 1,000 residents. Fortunately, no lives were lost and the fire was extinguished within three days. The City has spent nearly $350,000 to demolish the fire-charred and unsafe structures and IDEM removed all of the burned and whole tires from the site.

    In 1998, the City was awarded a $500,000.00 Brownfield Redevelopment loan from the State of Indiana, as well as a $200,000.00 Brownfield Demonstration Pilot grant from US EPA. The City has now had a Phase I assessment completed on the site along with some preliminary soil sampling and a limited Geonics EMG1 metal detector survey. By April 1999, demolition contractors will complete most of the removal of the remaining concrete flooring and surface structures, as well as known USTs from the site.

    The City’s Planning Department is in the process of hiring a consultant to assist with the development of a site plan incorporating ideas from the neighborhood community. We hope to have some idea of the site development in late spring of 1999.

    Gary, IN

    City of Gary Airport Development Zone (ADZ) Comprehensive Brownfield Assessment, Clean Up and Redevelopment Program

    The ADZ is approximately 8,200 acres surrounding the Gary/Chicago Airport. The properties in the ADZ are a mix of commercial, industrial, residential, and recreational uses, both publicly and privately owned. The ADZ is bounded by Lake Michigan to the north, Cline Avenue to the west, Ridge Road to the South, and as far east as Bridge Street stair stepping back to Burr Street.

    The ADZ was established in 1994, in anticipation of airport expansion and an increase in businesses and job creation in the area relative to expansion activities. The ADZ can offer businesses locating in the zone tax credits and abatements similar to those offered by urban enterprise zones.

    Historically, the industrial nature of much of the ADZ land uses resulted in scores of contaminated sites, including 3 superfund sites, and two properties requiring removal actions. Many businesses in the area are closed and abandoned. There is a generalized image of neglect and deterioration. The perception of contamination applies to most of the industrial properties located in the zone and a comprehensive approach to inventory, assessment, clean up and redevelopment has been initiated by the City of Gary and its local, state, and federal partners.

    The expansion of the Gary/Chicago Airport and the resulting commercial, industrial, recreational, and residential redevelopment in the Airport Development Zone will provide an impetus for the clean up and revitalization of this key area of Gary. The Redevelopment Projects and associated Brownfield Assessment and Clean Up Programs will provide jobs for local citizens, a foundation for rebuilding Gary, and a future for Gary’s youth in the 21st century.

    Waterfront Redevelopment and Revitalization

    The northern half of the ADZ is primarily industrial and former industrial property and the site of the city’s first major brownfield redevelopment project. The current owners of the majority of the immediate lakefront and adjacent properties are United States Steel, NIPSCO, Praxair, Lehigh Portland Cement, Marblehead Lime, Buffington Harbor Resort, Railroads, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Significant remnants of unspoiled and globally unique dune and swale ecosystem are also located in this area.

    In 1997 Trump and Barden Casino Boats located their facilities on former industrial property in Buffington Harbor and a lakeside hotel was constructed by Trump in the fall of 1998. The City of Gary has developed plans for a Waterfront Revitalization and Redevelopment Project to build a residential, recreational, and commercial development on former U.S. Steel property on Lake Michigan. A key component of this project will also include innovative public transportation and non-motor vehicle transportation options. The former industrial area will be assessed for clean up and redevelopment through the utilization of casino revenues, state and federal dollars, and private investment.

    Airport Expansion

    The Gary/Chicago Airport is located directly south of the lakeshore properties and is bordered by the Grand Calumet River as it flows to Lake Michigan. The Airport is entering a Phase II Master Planning process for a major expansion project to the west and north including runway expansion and additions as well as fueling and maintenance facilities. The Gary/Chicago Airport will serve as a major expansion project to the west and north including runway expansion and additions as well as fueling and maintenance facilities. The Gary/Chicago Airport will serve as a major cargo operation as well as a passenger reliever facility for Midway Airport in Chicago. Superfund sites and former illegal dumping areas ring the airport. An assessment project is underway to identify and prioritize potentially contaminated properties in the airport expansion zone. Discussion is underway with the USEPA and state environmental agencies for the recycling of two Superfund sites located on or near planned runway expansion areas.

    Phase I Brownfield Assessment Project

    The southern half of the ADZ is a mix of residential, commercial, and industrial uses. A commercial/industrial development corridor has been identified along Cline Avenue for airport related development. In 1997 the City of Gary partnered with the Gary Urban Enterprise Association, the Airport Development Zone, and the Northwest Indiana Brownfield Redevelopment Project, Inc. to seek a $50,000 Brownfield Assessment Grant from the Indiana Finance Authority with matching funds and services totaling more than $100,000. The grant was awarded in 1998 and the assessment project is underway to assess an initial grouping of 15 parcels in the Cline Avenue Corridor and approximately 26 parcels in the Airport Expansion Zone with a combined total of 350 acres for the first phase of the project.

    J-Pit Redevelopment Project

    The 100 acre closed Gary Landfill is situated in the southern portion of the ADZ as is a former 152 acre sandmine (J- Pit) that was previously identified as a location for a new regional municipal solid waste landfill. The J-Pit and surrounding properties were recently signed over to the City of Gary in the resolution of a lawsuit with the stipulation that the J-Pit not be used for a solid waste landfill. The City of Gary is in the process of developing a redevelopment plan for the entire area to create an industrial park, recreation, and natural area preserve. Several illegal dumping areas and a former auto junk yard classify as brownfield sites that will be assessed and cleaned up in the redevelopment process. Jobs, an increased tax base, and a clean and revitalized community will be the benefits resulting from this project that will accrue to local residents who have lived in the shadow of the landfill for more than 20 years.

    Bear Brand Hosiery Company

    Location: 2100 Massachusetts Street

    Size: 5,807 acres

    The facility is 400,000 square foot masonry building constructed in 1922. It has four (4) floors with electric, gas, water, sewer and telephone services available. The zoning is M1-2 (light industrial/manufacturing). The location has easy access to the Interstate(s) and, has rail link possibilities. It is also on the local Gary Public Transportation bus route.

    Owner: Ted’s Maintenance Construction & CDC Inc.

    3980 West 27th Place

    Ted’s Maintenance Construction & CDC Inc. is a not-for-profit corporation.

    This facility was originally built for and used by a U.S. military contractor who produced parachutes during WWI.

    It was later operated as a hosiery manufacturing facility that went out of business approximately thirty-eight years ago.

    An Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) was conducted on the site in November 1995. Approximately forty (40) drums were discovered on the site (some having leaked). In the rear of the building, an Underground Storage Tank (UST) was also discovered. IDEM reported the UST, to have been empty. On-site contaminants, detected from site sampling, are below Voluntary Remediation Program (VRP) standards. Based on the ESA, IDEM considers the site suitable for redevelopment. IDEM spent an estimated $25,000.00 on the ESA.

    U.S. EPA Region V conducted a removal and disposal action for the drums and contaminated soil. An inspection of the UST was also conducted. U.S. EPA Region V spent an estimated $73,200.00 on the removal and disposal action.

    In 1998, the Northwest Indiana Brownfield Redevelopment Project, Inc. had a Market Analysis- Feasibility Study conducted for $1,876.00. This study provides additional optimism for redevelopment of the site.

    Proposed plans for the facility lays out apprenticeship and training, a small business incubator, commercial and light industrial manufacturing sectors. The plans for the grounds include landscaping, and expanded parking area, and another entry/exit (especially for truck traffic).

    Glen Cove, NY

    The brownfields in Glen Cove are located predominately within the "waterfront district" — 214 acres of primarily environmentally challenged and underutilized properties which straddle the Glen Cove Creek. The Creek is a 1.1 mile long federal navigation channel that empties into Hempstead Harbor. These brownfields sites have been so identified because they are known to have a history of heavy industrial and manufacturing uses. In addition, tests on some properties have shown a presence of contamination to such an extent that two properties are listed as Federal Superfund sites (Li Tungsten and Mattiace) and one is listed on the New York State Registry of Inactive Hazardous Waste Sites (Captain’s Cove). Land adjacent to these sites historically had similar uses, and are now abandoned, misused, underutilized or idle. Redevelopment efforts have been hindered predominantly because of lack of financial resources, liability issues and environmental regulations that result in little or no incentive for the private sector to invest and redevelop.

    In spite of these obstacles the City has been successful in leveraging state and federal resources to begin redevelopment activities. In the last year alone, the City has received a $7.75 million grant from DOT to design and construct a road extension to the waterfront area and $6.5 million in the form of a Section 108 loan and accompanying BEDI grant from HUD to assist in property acquisition, cleanup costs and other redevelopment activities. In recognition of the City’s accomplishments, Glen Cove was recently selected as one of sixteen national Brownfields Showcase Communities.

    Work on cleaning up the brownfields and Superfund sites continues. In the last year, the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) has been completed at two of the Superfund sites and cleanup is projected to begin within the next eighteen months. The major focus of cleanup and development in the next year will be at Captain’s Cove, a 25-acre site located at the northwest section of the waterfront district. Its use in the past as a dump, including disposal of radioactive waste from the nearby Superfund site, has complicated its cleanup. The City, working with the USEPA, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the current owner have agreed to remediate the "hot spots" created by this disposal as part of the Superfund remediation. The majority of the site will then be remediated using funds from several sources including state funds and Community Development Block Grant monies from HUD. Once remediated, proposed plans for this site call for the development of an hotel, ferry landing, retail development, and open space. Of the numerous smaller brownfields sites, seven have been selected to date for environmental assessment. Four property appraisals, three Phase I and one Phase II assessments have been completed. These assessments will be used to help the City make decisions about land acquisitions and relocation of existing businesses in the waterfront area.

    Highland Park, MI

    Oakland Park Project

    Oakland Park is being developed as a mixed use warehouse/distribution, light manufacturing and high technology suburban style park. The park is being constructed on a 145 acre site. The site was, until 1992, the world headquarters for the Chrysler Corporation. The Chrysler Corporation (now Daimler-Chrysler) still occupies a limited portion of the sight, but will complete their vacation of the site by the end of 1999. When completed the development should contain over 2,000,000 square feet of manufacturing, warehousing/distribution and high technology space. The park is expected to employ in excess of 4,000 persons when completed. Total investment is expected to exceed $200,000,000.

    The project is under construction and some tenants have begun operations. Currently, over 100,000 square feet of space is occupied. Site preparations are being conducted on additional structures including a single tenant building with over 500,000 square feet of space. An internal ring road has been constructed which will service the entire site.

    Oakland Park represents a unique example of brownfield redevelopment. The Chrysler Corporation (now Daimler-Chrysler) has borne all remediation cost, significantly facilitating the project. Some sight related infrastructure issues have arisen which has hindered development. Alternative funding methods are being sought and utilized to mitigate these issues.

    Jackson, MI

    During the early 1980s the City of Jackson experienced several devastating economic blows when two of its largest industrial employers; Clark Equipment, and Goodyear Tire & Rubber closed down their Jackson operations. With the closing of these two local industrial giants the Jackson community lost an estimated 7,000 manufacturing-base jobs. The community was also the victim of several other closings by smaller manufacturers that included: Walker Muffler, Yardman Industries, Acme Industries, Jackson Drop Forge, Wyman Gordon and unfortunately others.

    Although the loss of over 15,000 industrial jobs was devastating to the community the Jackson community came together from all different sectors to "weather the storm." Now, fifteen years later, the Jackson community is prospering and preparing to enter the next millennium.

    With all the "pulling up of the community’s boot straps" that the City did to survive and even grow during this period of industrial desertion, there still remains the industrial skeletons of those past Jackson employers who ceased their Jackson operations for greener pastures.

    Presently the City of Jackson is the beneficiary of three brownfields that require redevelopment; the old Goodyear Tire and Rubber plant located on Tyson Street, the old JACO plating plant located on Mansion and Airline Drive, and the old Pittsburgh Forge plant located on Amir Street.

    Brownfield Activity within the City

    For the last several years the City of Jackson has been developing a plan to redevelop the old Goodyear plant, a 66-acre site. The City has hired the consultant firm of McNamee, Porter and Seely (MPS) of Ann Arbor, MI, and is also working with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the State Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), and the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC).

    MPS has completed a baseline phase I assessment and has began the phase II process. The City of Jackson also hired a real estate appraiser, the Oetzel-Williams Group, to appraise the Goodyear site. The appraisal was completed on March 24, 1997.

    The other two brownfield locations: the Pittsburgh Forge and the JACO sites were recently acquired by the City of Jackson through the tax reverted process. They city has requested consultation from the U.S. Department of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning both sites.

    Recently the EPA disposed of approximately 18,000 gallons of waste from the interior of the former JACO plating plant. The EPA crew also did floor decontamination at the site. The City of Jackson is currently awaiting instructions concerning the next steps required to redevelop this potential industrial site. The City plans to demolish the existing building on the site and market the area for industrial development. The assessment of the former Pittsburgh Forge site is in the first stages.

    On February 18, 1997, the Jackson City Commission approved the establishment of a Brownfield Redevelopment Authority in the City. The establishment of the Brownfield Redevelopment Authority was in relationship to the new state Brownfield Redevelopment Financing Act (PA 381, 1996). Public Act 381 allows municipalities to recapture tax increments from real and personal property taxes paid by the users of formerly contaminated industrial sites.

    Why the need to redevelop Jackson Brownfields?

    Even though the City of Jackson, like much of the country, is experiencing its lowest rate of unemployment in a generation. The majorities of the available jobs are in the service area and are low paying; usually between five and seven dollars per hour so the redevelopment of Jackson’s three brownfields would produce much needed higher wage employment opportunities for the Jackson community.

    The redevelopment of Jackson’s brownfields would also increase the total tax base of the community. The City of Jackson, like most other, older industrial Midwestern cities, has an antiquated infrastructure. The City of Jackson is updating its infrastructure, but limited resources have slowed the process, therefore, with the redevelopment of the three brownfields the City would have the funding resources to complete the upgrading of its infrastructure.

    With the redevelopment of these large industrial sites the City of Jackson can expect spin-off opportunities in both the industrial, service and housing areas. The redevelopment of the brownfields should produce a need for suppliers and additional service support industries. The increase of industrial opportunities should also produce a need for additional housing. The City of Jackson currently has one of the oldest housing stocks in the State of Michigan with the majority of the housing in Jackson being built before 1940. Not only does the City hope to increase employment opportunities but also to diversify its’ industrial base. By doing so the City can see the possibility for the need for new higher-income housing. As well as the available disposable income for current home owners, to reinvest in their homes and neighborhoods.

    In the last few years the City of Jackson has experienced a revitalized downtown area. With the redevelopment of the brownfields the spin-off effect should assist the downtown area to continue to prosper with new businesses while motivating the current business owners in the downtown area to reinvest in their facilities.

    The redevelopment of the City of Jackson’s three brownfields would be a positive step in identifying what Jackson, Michigan will be in the next millennium. The plan is for Jackson to be a diversified economic showcase community for the future.

    Jacksonville, FL

    Deer Creek Sub-basin Redevelopment Study and Design Project

    The Jacksonville Brownfields Coalition is an ad hoc advisory group that has been meeting for three years to implement a program within the city to assist landowners in the economic redevelopment of contaminated lands. The coalition, as pat of those efforts, had initially selected the Deer Creek Remediation Project for study as an initial brownfields demonstration project in the urban core area.

    Deer Creek is one of the half dozen watersheds that drain the urban core area of Jacksonville. The Deer Creek watershed contains a mixture of residential, commercial, and industrial land uses that were developed 50 years ago or earlier. Adjoining industrial lands are known to be contaminated and sediments within the creek are expected to be contaminated with pollutants from storm water runoff of those lands.

    The Brownfields Coalition has formed an informal Deer Creek Stakeholders Committee composed of landowners within the project area: federal, state, regional and local environmental regulators and the City of Jacksonville. The committee has held several meetings to define the procedures to be used in remediating contamination in the Deer Creek watershed, so that lands can be economically redeveloped.

    The City’s storm water consultant, Camp Dresser and McKee (CDM), has prepared, at the request of the committee, a scope of work for the project. This scope has been approved by the Committee, Coalition, City of Jacksonville Planning and Development, Public Works Departments, and the Jacksonville Port Authority. The scope includes site assessment, stormwater system design, cost estimates, cost benefit analysis to adjoining land owners, and a project-specific Environmental Resource Permit to clean-up the watershed. The primary alternative system appears to be construction of a stormwater facility which encapsulates sediments in the lower Deer Creek watershed, directs storm flows through a new regional treatment pond, controls groundwater flows to some extent in the surficial aquifer and assists adjoining landowners to qualify for risk based cleanups on their sites.

    The Jacksonville Port Authority and the City of Jacksonville received a $250,000 VA/HUD grant specifically for the Deer Creek remediation project. These funds are being used for the assessment and design work scope prepared by CDM.

    Jersey City, NJ


    Development: Mixed use residential / commercial development along the Hudson River. The development includes a regional shopping mall, apartments, townhouses, condominiums and office space. Improvements to the Site’s PATH Station, Light Rail Station for commuters as well as pedestrian access to the N.J. Transit Line at Hoboken have been planned. Waterfront Access, Parks, Hotel and a Marina complete the proposal. Development of 1000 plus acres is in process.

    Developed to Date:

    • 1.2 million square feet of Commercial Space

    • 2.2 million square feet of Commercial Office Space

    • 3000 residential units with 1000 under construction

    • Portions of Waterfront Walkway and parks

    • 187 Slip Marina with associated services

    • Prior Use: Rail Yards and associated industries.

    Type of contamination: PAH’s, TPH’s and heavy metals

    Type of remediation: A combination of bio-remediation, removal and capping.

    Financial Costs for Remediation: Assumed by the City and Developer

    Impact to Community: Establishes a mixed development on the Hudson River.

    Impediments to development: The extensive review, required documentation and delays when seeking permits from the N.J. Department of Environmental Protection, as covered under an Administrative Consent Order.

    • The lack of Grant funding for the remedial actions for development, especially for City Owned Property.

    • Groundwater Issues

    Best Practice: Although the entire site was investigated, the remedial process and development has taken place on a smaller more manageable scale, building by building. General Remedial Action Work Plan and Health and Safety Plan was created and is shared with all concerned.

    • The joint effort by the Developer, Jersey City and N.J. DEP has created an unofficial working partnership.

    • Returned a large portion of the City to a tax paying basis.

    Lafayette Park Redevelopment

    Development: Lafayette Park is a neighborhood development of mixed public, affordable and market rate housing on seven blocks, with infill occurring on adjacent side streets. The neighborhood is the community just west of Liberty State Park and within a mile of both Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty. Approximately 200 Low/Moderate homes of two units (owner/rental) have been completed. There are 152 units of mixed market rate and public housing in the pre-construction phase.

    Prior Use: Mixture of residential and commercial property including a Gas Station and Salicylic Acid Factory.

    Type of contamination: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons, lead and Chromate Ore Processing Residue.

    Type of remediation: Removal or site stabilization and treatment

    Financial Costs: PPG Industries as Responsible Party for the Chromate Ore Processing Residue performed removal at twelve sites scattered on eight blocks. The other heavy metal and petroleum contamination was remediated by the City.

    Impact on Community: Revitalization and stabilization of existing community.

    Impediments to development: It was discovered that chromate ore processing residue was used as clean fill in certain demolition sites scattered on the various blocks. A clean up standard for the Chromate Ore Processing Residue for residential sites was delayed for ten years. Until the chromate waste was remediated, the State would not allow the City to move forward with the remediation that it had to perform.

    • The lack of funding for the remedial actions for development, especially for City Owned Property.

    • The time delays for foreclosure on properties owing taxes or establishing a fair market value for contaminated land has been a problem.

    Best Practice: The City entered into the voluntary cleanup program for all but one of the blocks. This speeded up the City’s process after the remediation of the chromate waste.

    • The use of alternate technologies for remediation was a time and cost savings.

    • The N.J.DEP holding the Responsible Party accountable for the cleanup of the properties was a major action. The City would never have been able to afford the five million dollar remediation cost.


    Development: The Development is completed with two fifteen story Towers. There are 527 rental units, two floors of commercial space, parking and a portion of the Hudson River Walkway on the Tidewater Basin of the Morris Canal at Portside.

    Prior use: Tank Farm

    Type of contamination: TPH’s

    Type of Remediation: Removal and active reclamation

    Financial Costs: Assumed by the Responsible Party, as part of their compliance with the New Jersey Environmental Cleanup Responsibility Act.

    Impact on Community: The Portside Development is on the outskirts of a historic district. It changed the zoning of the area from industrial to residential.

    • The development, although large, aesthetically tried to blend in with the community via setbacks and similar structural facades.

    Impediments to Development: A long Waterfront Development Permit Process with the State.

    • RTC takeover.

    Best Practices: Continuous water treatment process while performing site development.

    Kearny, NJ

    Because of the costs and liability issues with cleanup, the Brownfields sites in Kearny remain underused. At this time, Kearny is participating in a Brownfields Demonstration Pilot Project, that is federally funded and is administered through Hudson County. The goal of the project is to get over these liability and cost hurdles and develop these properties.

    Knoxville, TN

    The City of Knoxville has several brownfield sites including a former railroad shop, a smelter, a foundry, a landfill and a scrap metal site. The City’s present efforts, however, focus on a large former industrial area stretching along the interstate which we have named the Center City Business Neighborhood (CCBN). This 566 acre area is characterized by small parcels and multiple owners making optimal development by the private market forces unlikely. Approximately 150 acres of developable land has been identified, in sites ranging from .3 acres to 12.5 acres in size. Anchor businesses such as Rohm & Haas and Coca-Cola are already in place. The intent of the Center City project is to build upon the existing successful business activities and encourage additional businesses to locate in this vital area of the City.

    The stimulus to the redevelopment of this area has been an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Brownfields grant of $200,000. We are spending the bulk of that grant money on environmental assessments and a redevelopment plan for a portion of the CCBN (approximately one- sixth of the total park) and for a landscape design plan of the entire area. The city and the state have already invested or committed more than $6 million dollars for road improvements in the area, through two major road-widening projects.

    The site has a varied history of multiple uses including residential, institutional, governmental, manufacturing and commercial. The past and present on-site environmental concerns include: metalworking/foundries; marble quarry operations; furniture manufacturing; chemical manufacturing/processing; vehicle equipment maintenance; textile processing mills; printing facilities; welding operations; electric power substation. Phase I assessments have been done on some 90 acres. So far, the contamination found in connection with the $7.3 million in private development that has been launched so far has either been slight or nonexistent. No cleanup has been required yet.

    In order to come up with strategies for redevelopment, the city built a partnership among interested residents, business owners, governmental officials, and development experts and representatives from those areas have been serving on committees since the effort began. But the city has been stymied in its efforts to bring significant quality redevelopment to the area, based largely on the lack of available land. Developers express interest in coming into the area, only to have to look elsewhere because of the difficulty and high cost associated with the private acquisition of a large number of small parcels, along with higher site preparation costs, absolute street patterns, inadequate access and absentee ownership. Public action to assemble property into larger blocks, along with public investment in infrastructure, site and access improvements, is critical to facilitating private investment and the creation of new jobs. The city has identified a need for a multimillion dollar revolving fund to cover the estimated $16.2 million needed for site acquisition, remediation and site preparation. The fund would be replenished as the properties are sold to developers. The city is currently evaluating funding options and has included this project in Knoxville’s 1998 Empowerment Zone application.

    The decision to develop the Center City Business Neighborhood will influence the area for decades to come but not only through a significant increase in the city’s tax and the creation in 10 years of an estimated 1,800 new jobs with an estimated private sector payroll of $42 million annually. The quality of the design and the type of development would have a direct bearing on the daily lives and environment of a substantial percentage of the population - as well as the appearance of the city as a whole. The potential impact on existing neighborhoods inhabited by historically disadvantaged populations - low and moderate income families and a significant segment of Knoxville’s minority community - could be enormous, making this effort a top priority.

    Las Vegas, NV

    Fast Facts on the Armory

    Why is the Armory a Brownfields site?

    In 1997, the city accepted ownership of the Armory site from the Nevada National Guard. This 3.6 acre site contains buildings that were used for office space, vehicle service and chemical and supply storage for military business. In early 1998, a Phase I study was suggested to identify any historical environmental issues associated with on-site and off-site land uses. The City hired a local environmental consulting firm to study the conditions at the Armory site by performing this Phase I study. Their research suggested an impact from both on-site and off-site environmental issues that may complicate the development process. To investigate these issues, testing is currently being performed to confirm the environmental integrity of the soil and ground water at this site.

    When will the testing take place?

    A consulting firm has been selected and the process of testing has begun. The test results should be available in February 1999.

    What will be the future use of this site?

    At this time, this site is planned to have a community center and business incubator program.

    What factors make this site so important to the development of this area?

    This site is located close to a major freeway exit in a mature neighborhood just east of Downtown Las Vegas. This site has good street frontage, significant acreage and is located at a signalized major intersection. The surrounding neighborhood is predominantly Hispanic.

    Leavenworth, KS

    1. Brownfield site #1 is a superfund cleared site where an auto salvage and scrap metal yard was known to contain PCBs and other heavy metals. EPA cleaned it in 1993-94 timeframe. The City then rechanneled a creek that went through the site to a new location around the site to complete surface restoration work and reduce down-stream flooding.

    2. The second Brownfield site had KPL substation and transformer storage on one side with an ink and paper manufacturer on the other. After removal of 2 feet to 4 feet of surface materials, a new auto dealership was built and the asphalt parking lot encapsulates any residual waste that may still contaminate subsoil.

    3. The third site had a coal gassification plant (Kansas Gas Service). After removal of 1-2 feet of surface materials, clean materials were used to fill and landscape a city park. KGS has a monitoring well on site, but this is no longer considered hazardous.

    Each of these projects has led to significant redevelopment of severely blighted property.

    Lewiston, ME


    EPA has selected the City of Lewiston for a Brownfields Pilot. The declining fortunes of the New England textiles industry have adversely affected the City of Lewiston (population 39,757). The main focus of brownfields cleanup and redevelopment in Lewiston is the 1.2 million-square-foot Bates Mill Complex. Historically, the eleven-building mill complex employed more than 5,000 people and was the state’s largest employer. Economic decline and massive layoffs, however, have resulted in a large abandoned mill and a barren downtown. In the community surrounding the mill, unemployment is 16.1percent, compared to 7.5 percent for the entire city. The poverty rate in this community is 47.3 percent, while the rate for the city is only 3.9 percent. Revitalization of Lewiston’s downtown and waterfront depends upon returning the Bates Mill Complex to productive use.

    Because total renovation is estimated to cost between $70 and $100 million, the city has renovated the cleanest and most desirable sections of the mill first. Signs of the mill’s rejuvenation are beginning to show, with 24 small businesses and 300 people operating in two sections of the complex. Real and perceived environmental contamination hampers development of the remaining 67 percent of the complex. A Phase I environmental site assessment has already taken place. Without the Pilot, financial constraints would prohibit a Phase II assessment of the most contaminated parts of the mill, and developers may avoid such properties with unknown potential environmental cleanup costs.


    Lewiston’s objective is to use the Bates Mill Complex as an anchor for downtown cleanup and economic redevelopment, and as a catalyst for community job creation. Lewiston plans to use Pilot funds to overcome barriers to mill renovation posed by the most contaminated sections of the complex. Initial Pilot funding will be used for site assessment, site identification, and site characterization. Roundtable discussions with stakeholders will then produce an action plan for cleanup. Those discussions will also help to identify additional investors and creative financing solutions.

    Livonia, MI

    The City of Livonia Landfill consists of 77.98 acres, and is located in Livonia’s Industrial Corridor between, but not contiguous to, I-96 on the north and CSX rail on the south.

    The Landfill is currently zoned Public Land as it is owned by the City of Livonia. Approximately 15 acres are currently being utilized as an active landfill. Additional current uses include a Department of Parks & Recreation Archery Range, Department of Public Works storage and maintenance yards, a police and fire training area, and five acres are leased to a private firm specializing in roadway paving and construction.

    Projects currently under study for this acreage include a five-acre parcel for an electric utility substation, and strong interest in 20 acres from a national Brownfield site development firm.

    As the City of Livonia's Industrial Corridor is, in essence, landlocked, the location of the City's Landfill is very attractive for re-zoning to M-1 or M-2 and industrial build-to-suit projects.

    The Livonia Department of Public Works has traditionally been charged with operation of the Landfill and dispersion of its acreage for new uses. The Livonia Economic Development office is now working in support of the Department of Public Works in redevelopment of this land.

    Lynwood, CA

    Northeast corner of Alameda Street and Imperial: Western Gateway Site

    The site is a vacant industrial building encompassing 83,000 square feet of land. The property has been vacant for many years. Included on the site is an auto wrecking yard and remaining vacant property. The last known licensed use of the property was an electrical contracting business. The property is in a deteriorated condition with trash, debris, broken windows, graffiti, etc. Major impediments to development are the costs of clean-up of the site as well as the demolition, and acquisition of the property. The site is located on two major arterial highways and is adjacent to the I-105 freeway. Currently the property is zoned industrial however, the site could be developed as a commercial site because of its location. Potential development could include a stand alone big box retail use or a Power Center.

    Status of the site; City is seeking a project developer

    Vestar Development Property

    The site is a 34 acre property that is adjacent to the Long Beach 710 Freeway and the I 105 Freeway. The site is developed with a mixture of industrial and residential uses. The site is located in a existing flood zone. The site is in dilapidated condition, deferred maintenance on the buildings, streets in need of repair, with a overall lack of planning and city services. Major impediments to development are the belief that some of the area is built on or has remains of an old landfill as well as high acquisition and relocation costs to develop the site. The property is currently zoned industrial however the property could be developed as a Industrial Park or a retail Power Center.

    Status of the site; City is working with Vestar Development on a feasibility study on the economics of the site.

    Macon, GA

    Downtown Industrial District (DID) Brownfields Redevelopment Project

    At the present time, the City of Macon would like to consider the acquisition of property located in the Downtown Industrial District. This property would be used for the development of a regional recreational facility identified in the community’s recreation and open space plan. The plan proposed that such facilities would best be located in this area.

    The Brownfield Pilot Proposal would enable the city to investigate the brownfield status of the selected site. Specifically, the funds would allow the city to hire a professional to prepare an environmental assessment of the property with recommendations on the appropriate clean-up activities as well as appropriate uses for the site. Secondly, a feasibility study will be developed which would consider the cost of environmental reclamation, site development costs for the proposed uses, and income produced by the activities taking place on the proposed site. This study would also make recommendations in terms of the financing mechanisms for implementing this project. The third and final activity of this proposal includes a public participation/education program. This program will develop workshops and information materials that will assist the public in understanding the importance of brownfield reclamation as well as showing the financial and development institutions of the community how brownfields can be developed and produce economically viable projects.

    Malden, OH

    TeleCom City is a regional technology development initiative designed in a collaborative effort between federal representatives, led by Representative Edward Markey, Massachusetts’s Weld-Cellucci administration, and local government to bring together industry, university, and government interests at a site in the cities of Everett, Malden, and Medford, five miles north of Boston. It will position the Massachusetts economy for telecommunications industry growth into the next century.

    Among the key findings described in this Plan are the following:

    • The strong position of Massachusetts in the rapidly evolving telecommunications industry would be decisively enhanced with timely intervention by a collaboration of government, industry and academia.

    • Other states are making major investments to capture this industry, which will triple in size, to $3 trillion per year within the next ten years.

    • No other state has adopted the comprehensive approach proposed by the TeleCom City project.

    Based on these findings, the Mystic Valley Development Commission ("MVDC"), the tri-city agency charged with redeveloping the area, will acquire a large percentage of the underutilized 207 acre site, relocate the current private businesses and prepare the land for redevelopment by a private master developer ground lessee. The MVDC will work closely with area universities, emerging and established telecommunications businesses and venture capitalists to establish collaborations and partnerships off-site and on-site that will center Massachusetts’s claim to predominance in this rapidly emerging industry.

    • The project will create approximately 2 million square feet of new office, R & D, and manufacturing space, generate approximately 7,470 net new jobs on site and at least quintuple the annual local real estate taxes generated on-site to at least $6 million.

    • Re-utilization of the site will bring badly needed open space and waterfront opportunities to residents for the cities.

    • The project will also draw attention to and help solve long-standing regional transportation bottlenecks,

    The MVDC proposes a financing plan involving substantial commitments of federal, state and local financing in the context of these developing industry and academic collaborations. The state investment will involve a total of approximately $17.8 million in grants for on-site infrastructure, $44 million in repayable loans for land assembly and preparation, and $15 million in grants for initiation of on-site industry activities to be matched by other sources. Long overdue regional transportation corridor improvements have been preliminarily estimated at $54 million. The state will be repaid with interest for its loans, realize substantial return from the payroll taxes resulting from job creation on the site and will also fully participate in the long-term financial return of its investment.

    In short, the TeleCom City project will position Massachusetts to create skilled jobs and nurture innovative companies to compete for a rising standard of living in the next century.

    Mckeesport, PA


    Industrial Center of McKeesport 135 acres

    McKeesport Steel Foundry 14 acres

    Steffan Industries (Reliance Steel) 6 acres

    Firth Sterling 7 acres

    Former Esso Station 1/8 acre

    Former Gas Station (Versailles Avenue) 1/4 acre

    Prest Garage 1/10 acre

    Former Gas Station (Soles Street) 1/14 acre

    Former Stop & Go 1/4 acre

    Former Gas Station (West Fifth Avenue) 1/2acre

    Menzie Dairy Garage 1 acre

    PBS Chemical 3 acres

    Former Gas Station(5th&Hartman Street) 1/5 acre

    Memphis, TN

    Firestone Plant Site

    Eighty acres, located in the Memphis Enterprise Community. Key strategy to Memphis Empowerment Zone Round II Application and strategic Plan. Located in an area, which lost approximately 1,500 jobs when the Firestone Plant closed. Clean-up is key to higher re-use which would create jobs for the surrounding community known locally as New Chicago.

    Wabash Screen and Metal Door Plant

    Located in South Memphis. Part of the Enterprise Community. Fifteen acre site formerly industrial. Beginning negotiations for purchase from private owner. Re-use would be Phase II of a residential development plan.

    Memphis Wolf River Harbor

    Potential site for clean up and reuse for passive recreation and as an emenity to the redevelopment of the Memphis Riverfront. Area is adjacent to a historic neighborhood slated for redevelopment.

    Other sites Being Scouted for Potential

    Discussions between the Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development and the Memphis and Shelby County Office of Planning and Development are on-going in relation to future Brownfield site redevelopment projects. A joint City/County economic development plan known as Memphis 2005 identifies brownfields and urban redevelopment as a main goal.

    Miami, FL

    Poinciana Industrial Center

    The Poinciana Industrial Center (PIC), located between NW 73-78 Street and NW 22-27 Avenue is in an older, mixed use, economically depressed minority neighborhood of north central Miami-Dade County. The site comprises about 30 acres of former industrial and commercial uses. As a result of the Miami 1980 civil disturbances, industrial operators located in the PIC were adversely affected. Miami-Dade County, using federal funds, purchased much of the abandoned and fire damage properties. Today there are a few on-going businesses. Redevelopment has been slow in part due to perceptions of site contamination, and additional environmental assessment and remediation activity is required before the site can be effectively marketed for private redevelopment.

    PIC is adjacent to a family public housing development, thereby underscoring the concern about potential human exposures to any contamination that may be found at the site. This area is composed of low income minority residents experiencing high levels of unemployment, and in great need of jobs.

    The greatest impediment to PIC has been the slow redevelopment process as well as the inability to sell or lease property due to the possibility of contamination. This project has created an awareness that streamlining the redevelopment process is imperative. PIC must be marketed and promoted quickly but this may only occur when the individual parcels have been environmentally assessed and remediated.

    City of Miami’s Wynwood Project

    The City of Miami was awarded an EPA pilot grant in 1996 to redevelop a formerly economically active industrial area of Wynwood, a City of Miami neighborhood. The neighborhood is part of the Wynwood, Community Development Target Area and is included in the Miami-Dade County Enterprise Community and a State of Florida Enterprise Zone. The project site is adjacent to the newly established Wynwood Foreign Trade Zone.

    This 5-6 acre area is located between NW 1 Place and 1 Avenue and between NW 21-22 Street. The project is divided into the east and the west parcel. The Wynwood neighborhood is bounded by railroad tracks to the east and expressways to the north and west. Wynwood’s industrial district suffered massive job loss in the 1980s dropping in that decade from 2,381 to 843 jobs. Over 40 percent of this area is devoted to industrial or commercial use. Although this tremendous loss of jobs of almost 65 percent in ten years was not primarily due to a brownfields problem, once industry left brownfields were an important factor in the failure to re-attract businesses to the area. To redevelop the area would increase the jobs and spur urban in fill.

    One of the major impediments for redeveloping the Wynwood site is the complexity of determining who owns the properties. The properties under control of the bankruptcy court in Las Vegas has complicated the redevelopment decisions locally. Another obstacle has been the local and federal back taxes and the accrued liens on the properties. Compounding the problem, the environmental contamination of the properties is more severe than previously thought; however, the sites can be remediated quickly once the properties are sold to the redeveloper. These road blocks have indicated that the federal government, especially the Internal Revenue Service, should be involved with the brownfields effort in order to streamline and expedite the redevelopment process.

    Minneapolis, MN

    South East Minneapolis Industrial Area (SEMI)

    In 1994, the Southeast Economic Development (SEED) steering committee was formed to oversee redevelopment of this 300 acre industrial area on the Minneapolis/St. Paul border. The Steering Committee consists of neighborhood representatives bordering SEMI, representatives of their corresponding Neighborhood Revitalization Programs, the Southeast Business Association (SEBA), Stadium Village and Dinkytown commercial associations, University of Minnesota, City and Minneapolis Park Board staff. The Steering Committee has prepared a Framework Master Plan for the area and has supported several significant contamination reclamations which resulted in new business and job creation for the area. With assistance from the Minneapolis Community Development Association (MCDA), a private investor cleaned up and redeveloped two brownfield sites and constructed 650,000 square feet of new light industrial space, creating space for more than 800 jobs. In cooperation with Hennepin County, two other sites are being cleaned up to provide 140,000 square feet of new light industrial space, creating space for 150 jobs. In cooperation with the University of Minnesota, and the City of St. Paul, the MCDA has been awarded funds to clean up a former waste dump for Hubbard Broadcasting’s 18,000-square-foot United States Satellite Broadcasting (USSB) facility. The project is estimated to retain 100 jobs and create 100 new jobs.

    Northeast Minneapolis Quarry Regional Shopping Center

    In 1996 the three acre Quarry Retail project in northeast Minneapolis cleaned up a former dump to develop a regional shopping center featuring major grocery and retail stores including Rainbow Foods, Target and other national retail anchors. The Quarry is Minneapolis’ largest commercial development outside of downtown. Local, regional and state clean-up costs exceeded $7.5 million. This project required extensive neighborhood review and participation throughout the development of this urban shopping center. One benefit includes design and traffic concepts congruent with community concerns and shopping patterns. The most significant benefit is that Minneapolis residents will no longer have to drive to the suburbs to shop at these types of stores.

    Rochford Supply Inc./ Union Scrap Iron and Metal Site

    The former Union Scrap Iron and Metal Site at 1500-1520 Washington Avenue North and 210 15th Avenue North was one of the most polluted pieces of land in Minneapolis, listed on both the state and federal Superfund rosters for serious environmental problems. Union Scrap operated a battery recycling business on the site from 1973-1983. This entire city block was contaminated with heavy metals, primarily lead. The eastern half of the block was encapsulated by the U.S. EPA.

    Preparing the land for reuse included extensive environmental assessment of the site, followed by the excavation of approximately 10,000 cubic yards of impacted soil in accordance with an approved Response Action Plan from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). Development of the site was complicated by the presence of several large, concrete monoliths (remnants of the EPA’s encapsulation work) on the eastern half of the block. Through the cooperative efforts of the MCDA, Rochford, and the MPCA, a compromise involving partial removal of the monoliths and redesign of the building loading dock and parking lot areas will facilitate the completion of initial development activities for the block.

    The MCDA contributed $380,000 to clean-up the site, part of which was a match for contamination clean-up funds for $268,000 from the Minnesota Department of Trade and Economic Development and $190,000 from the Metropolitan Council.

    If you drive past the site now, you’ll see a new building going up — the future home of Rochford Supply Inc., an upholstery and marine-supply firm. The company has 27 full-time employees and plans to expand at the new site to create 34 new jobs in the next five years. Rochford bought the 57,000-square foot western half of the block, where it is constructing a new facility, from the Minneapolis Community Development Agency (MCDA) for $130,000. The company will use the eastern half of the block, for which it signed a 99-year lease at $1 a year, for parking.

    The site is part of the North Washington Industrial Park (NWIP), one of several industrial parks being developed in Minneapolis. In addition to Rochford Supply, two other companies have built new facilities on remediated land in NWIP since the MCDA established a redevelopment plan for the area in 1994.

    Mishawaka, IN

    The former Uniroyal site, located in the heart of downtown Mishawaka, includes 43 acres, 56 buildings, and over 1.7 million square feet of former industrial space. The site was used for the manufacturing of various products since 1833. At its peak over 10,000 employees worked on site. On April 1, 1997 the doors closed for good as the final manufacturing operations moved from the site. A year later the City of Mishawaka has taken control of the property through a lease agreement (with option to purchase) with the trustee from bankruptcy court and is moving forward with redevelopment activities. The City will acquire title to the property prior to demolition.

    Montebello, CA

    Site Characteristics: In the City of Montebello, there is one brownfield in development consisting of approximately 100 acres of heavy industrial land (zoned M-2). The site, formerly a landfill, is occupied by 37 businesses involved mainly in trucking and truck related occupations, but also includes a gravel and concrete block manufacturer, a steel drum storage site, a recycling center and a clothes manufacturer. The process has just begun and is involved in researching maps, aerials and official records to determine boundaries and various uses.

    Major Impediments to Development: Trucking is regarded as low use by the City returning low revenues and few jobs. The City Council has designated trucking as a non-complying use and has sunseted all such uses by 2020. In the meantime, trucking dominates this particular site because it is not infrastructure intensive. The site is a former landfill and due to the fact that it is an "unclassified" landfill, businesses and landowners find it difficult to procure substantial financing for significant development. The added complication in this case is that even if the site is found to have no contamination, it remains a geological challenge. Can a building be erected at a reasonable cost that could be used for the higher uses the City prefers?

    Best Practices: The City has contracted with a community organizer to establish a better relationship with the business community at the site using a series of community planning meetings. It is expected that some of the businesses will elect to sell their interest in the site while others will find this an opportunity to partner for greater profit with a developer.

    The City can make Section 108 funds available for the redevelopment process and is entertaining input from developers about potential uses of the area. Because the site is zoned complete M-2 Heavy Industrial, and there is no residential zone allowed within 150 feet of the site, therefore it is not necessary to clean the parcels to a residential or even commercial standard. We intend to determine an end use prior to doing ground proofs of the site. This will focus scarce financial resources for achieving the end goal by avoiding unnecessary levels of regulation.

    Monterey Park, CA

    Operating Industries, Inc.

    The City of Monterey Park has a major brownfield site infamously known around the country as the Operating Industries, Inc. Superfund site (OII site). The potential brownfield site is a 190 acre parcel of land divided by the Pomona Freeway into a 45 acre north parcel and a 145 acre south parcel. Between 1948 and 1952, a small portion of the north parcel served as the dump for the City of Monterey Park, accepting residential trash. The entire site was placed on the California hazardous waste priority list in January 1984, and finalized on the National Priority List (NPL) in May, 1986.

    The OII site has had distinct and direct environmental and economic impacts on Monterey Park and neighboring communities. State and Federal regulatory agencies have identified numerous environmental problems at the site, which are being addressed. Economically, the listing on the NPL had a significant adverse impact. Before the listing, the City was about to implement a large redevelopment project on the north parcel. When the site was listed on the NPL, however, the plans collapsed, and the City lost 3,000 new jobs and approximately $26 million . The highway construction funds and developer contributions that were lined up for the north parcel were instead diverted to projects outside of Monterey Park. As a result of these lost and unrealized funds, the local economy has stagnated and the City has been forced to cut back on important municipal services. Commercial and residential property values remain depressed, and the blight of the landfill remains.

    Over the past two years, City staff has been pursuing the brownfield development of the site. This redevelopment effort is extremely complex with multiple stakeholders involved due to its location and NPL designations. Specific goals of the City’s redevelopment plans include: 1) redevelop the north parcel of the OII site while cleanup on the south parcel continues; 2) create a new source of funds to finance the south parcel cleanup through the sale of the north parcel; 3) generate new jobs and new revenue streams for the city; 4) educate and involve the community about the redevelopment of the site; 5) create training and job opportunities for students and graduates of local colleges; 6) resolve liability issues related to development of the north parcel currently on the NPL; and 7) facilitate the future development of nearby brownfield sites.

    The staff has been in constant discussion without the Federal EPA to educate them on the potential economic development of the site. As a result, the Federal EPA has agreed to draft a Prospective Purchaser Agreement to allow the redevelopment of the site. The site has been targeted for retail/entertainment development of approximately 420,000 square feet. Over the past year, numerous discussions have been on-going with Edison International, Caltrans and the neighboring City of Montebello to gain approvals for freeway access and grading of land owned by these entities. Finally, local voters approved to rezone the north parcel from manufacturing to commercial, thus allowing for retail development to occur. Currently, the staff is procuring an environmental impact report to determine any and all impacts to the surrounding community as a result of the proposed redevelopment of the site. The long awaited development of this site will occur once all stakeholder approvals and entitlements have been approved and remediation of the site are complete.

    Mountain View, CA

    Site 1

    A five acre site on Mora Drive currently in final stages of federal EPA monitored clean up of ground and ground-water contamination from former electronic industry activity. The industrial buildings were demolished approximately 10 years ago and the vacant site has been fenced for security and generally been kept clean by current owners. It is not a superfund site. Area is zoned for residential. EPA has certified that site’s ground contamination has been cleaned up to nondetectable levels and may be safely developed with residential development, provided there are deed restrictions to avoid activities that could result in ground water contact. The site is zoned for Medium Low Density Multiple-family Residential use and has access to full urban services and facilities.

    Property owner recently held bid solicitation and received a dozen proposals. Owner has screened bidder pool to four finalists and is in process of making final selection. Property is expected to be privately developed in the next two years. No public money has been used in the clean up and no subsidies have been requested or provided. The industry that contaminated the site has been required to pay the full costs of the clean up of the site. There were some time delays in the clean up activity caused by the necessity of suing the contaminating party and the difficulties of prosecuting the firm which was a USA subsidiary of a foreign firm. However, there were no substantial impediments to the clean up process.

    Site 2

    A vacant 10 acre site on Whisman Road that is a part of a larger, 150 acre Superfund site. Contamination of the area was caused by electronic industry use on several sites in the area. This is the only site left in this area to be developed. The rest of the area has retained previously existing buildings (most of which have been substantially remodeled in the past two years) or has undergone private redevelopment replacing older industrial buildings with Class A office/R & D space. Approximately a half million square feet of new buildings on privately redeveloped sites have been built in the past two years. The subject 10 acre site is bounded on north and south by some of these new Class A office buildings.

    The property is in two ownerships, which has delayed redevelopemnt of the site. The ground contamination has been remediated but remediation of the contaminated aquifer is continuing. Other sites in the area have redeveloped with the aquifer remediation equipment in place on the site, without difficulty. This site has access to full urban facilities and infrastructure and is zoned for Office/R & D/Light Manufacturing use. With the quantity and quality of new development on the surrounding properties, it is anticipated that this site will redevelop in the very near future. No significant impediments related to the brownfields condition of the site is anticipated.

    Murray, UT

    Murray Smelter Site

    The site is located in the center of the Salt Lake Valley near I-15 and U.S. 89 and contains approximately 141 acres. The American Smelting and Refining Company operated a lead smelter on the property from 1902 until 1950. The smelter processed 1,500 tons of lead per day with eight blast furnaces. In addition to lead, several by-product metals were also produced including: gold, silver, copper, antimony, bismuth, arsenic and cadmium. The primary by-products were slag, arsenic and cadmium. Since the closure of the smelter operation, it has been determined there is contamination of soils and a shallow ground aquifer with lead and arsenic.

    Property parcels have been sold to private interests since the closure of the smelter operation. The largest site user has been a pre-cast concrete manufacturer. That operation has now relocated to another site outside of the city.

    The site is one of the last important redevelopment areas available in the city. There is great potential to redevelop this property for retail opportunities. The location of the site in the valley and city make this area a prime business location. Our marketing studies confirm this assessment.

    The City has been working closely with the EPA, property owners and a development team to bring this site to productivity. Currently, remediation is taking place on the property under the direction of the EPA. The American Smelting and Refining Company is paying for the remediation costs. The consent decree has been signed by all parties involved and work is moving forward to prepare the site for development.

    A development group is assembling the property for purchase. Institutional controls have been established for the site along with preliminary development approvals. The site is proposed to contain a major 22 screen movie complex, retail shopping, restaurants, office space and a possible hotel location. Further, another portion of the site is being purchased with the intent of establishing a regional medical center with associated medical offices and clinics.

    The City is currently working with these groups to consider gap financing remedies that could include tax increment financing, special improvement districts and other financial assistance. The City also received a Region VIII Brownfields grant that is being used to fund a real estate consultant to advise the City on developer requests and to do a chimney stability study to determine the seismic condition of the two chimneys remaining on the site.

    Work is proceeding on the site in a satisfactory manner and it is hoped development can begin on the site this year.

    New Bedford, MA

    Former Talleyrand Chemical Corporation

    Location: 129 John Vertente Boulevard

    New Bedford, MA

    Located in New Bedford’s industrial park

    Size: 79 acres

    Past Use: The Site was developed in the early 1970s as a manufacturer of granulated PVC. Talleyrand ceased operation in the 1980s. A packaging company then used the site until the late 1980s. The City foreclosed on the site in 1992 as a result of the owner’s failure to pay taxes.

    Impact on Community: Perceived contamination has made marketing the site difficult, resulting in a loss of property taxes while the City has owned the site.

    Major Impediments to Development: Perceived contamination and the presence of unusable buildings, underground storage tanks, and other unusable structures has made marketing the site difficult. The lack of available funds to properly assess and prepare the site has impeded redevelopment.

    Current Status: An environmental assessment of the site has been completed and funding secured for demolition of the structures on the site. Demolition is now underway. The City created an incentive package and has secured a commitment from a local company to relocate to the site once demolition activities are complete.

    Former Morse Cutting Tools

    Location: Pleasant Street

    Site is located in a residential neighborhood with limited surrounding commercial use.

    Size: 3.4 acres

    Past Use: Morse Cutting Tools, a manufacturer of drills and cutting tools, operated on the site from 1864 until 1990. Two four/five story brick buildings, which occupied the two block site, remained vacant from the cessation of operations until 1996, when they were demolished in response to the community’s concern about public safety. The site is vacant.

    Impact on Community: The site has impacted quality of life in the surrounding neighborhood. The presence of low level contaminants in groundwater has caused concern to the community, despite the fact that groundwater is not used for drinking water.

    Major Impediments to Development: Prior to demolition, the presence of the buildings impeded redevelopment. The presence of low level contaminants in groundwater have caused concern about potential liability form perspective buyers. Reuse planning assistance would help return this now vacant site to a viable reuse.

    Current Status: A responsible party has been identified and is conducting assessment and response activities at the site.

    Newark, NJ

    DuPont; Pitt-Consol Site

    Ownership: E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company (continues to pay taxes on the property)

    Historical or existing use: Currently vacant, the site produced various chemicals since the 1800s, until 1983 when operations ceased due to market conditions and the buildings were dismantled.

    Acreage: 37.0, block 5016, lot 1

    Plans for redevelopment: On January 9, 1998, DuPont wrote to the NJDEP to announce that the firm will be entering this site into the State’s voluntary cleanup program and will be pursuing a Memorandum of Agreement to return this site to productive use.

    Type of Contamination: Soil: Five samples collected and analyzed for PCBs were all found to have non-detect levels of PCBs. Twelve soil samples at four locations were sampled for total phenolics and total organic carbon. Test pits have revealed that product contamination (specifically tar) exists throughout the site. In addition, seven former lagoons located on the site are suspected to be sources of contamination. Groundwater: According to the NJDEP, there is regional groundwater contamination in this part of Newark and the groundwater is not used as a source of drinking water. Contaminants identified in the groundwater include both light non-aqueous phase liquids and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL and DNAPL). Any off-site contribution from the DuPont site has not been delineated at this time. Shallow (infill material ) ground water constituents to be addressed include PAHs, benzene, arsenic, methylene chloride, toluene, naphthalene, and total phenolics. Ground water constituents to be addressed in the lower water-bearing zone are similar.

    Estimated Cost of Remediation /Redevelopment: Cumulative costs of investigations and ongoing maintenance/operational costs is estimated to have been $1.5 million from the cessation of plant operations in 1983 until April 1998. Estimated remediation cost not established.

    Timeline for Redevelopment: DuPont’s timeline indicates that the site should receive its final NJDEP remedial action review and approval by January 2002.

    Current Status of Redevelopment: As of October 1, 1998, approval of DuPont’s Preliminary Assessment was received from NJDEP in September 1998. Fieldwork may commence in early 1999, depending upon NJDEP review and turnaround.

    This site is one of few remaining large undeveloped sites in the City conveniently located near the NJ Turnpike entrance/exit. It is suitable for either labor intensive distribution center, manufacturing facility or regional retail mall.

    Problems Associated with Site Redevelopment: Adjacent to active chemical/refining and distribution facilities.

    White Chemical Corporation, 660 Frelinghuysen

    Ownership: City of Newark

    Historical or Existing Use: Inactive site that formerly manufactured acid chlorides and flame-retardant compounds. Includes five major buildings and three smaller facility support structures.

    Acreage: 5.20, Block 3782, Lot 109

    Plans for Redevelopment: Plans for a major expansion for an on-airport airport catering facility.

    Since the majority of South Ward residents are of African-American heritage, redevelopment may be considered to address environmental justice.

    Type of Contamination: Immediate/Emergency Action (completed in 1992), Early Remedial Response (completed in 1992) and currently active long-term remedial response that involve investigation of subsurface soil and groundwater contamination.

    Preliminary results of the long term remedial response suggest that 1) the building may potentially be reused and 2) contamination appears to be a benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)anthracene (BNA’s) exceed NJDEP soil cleanup criteria. Results indicated that dioxin may not be a concern. Contaminant distribution suggests a "hot spot" scenario (not uniform throughout site). The clean up may occur sooner than originally estimated and enable quicker reuse.

    Estimated Cost of Remediation/ Redevelopment: Preliminary estimate of $10,000,000

    Timeline for Redevelopment: EPA Region 2 indicate that the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RIFS) may take 6 to 12 months with field activities taking about two months.

    Current Status of Redevelopment: Conceptual plan under review by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

    Problems Associated with Site Redevelopment: Unknown at this time.

    Cookson Site/Kingsland Drum

    Ownership: Cookson Pigments, Inc. Kingsland Drum

    Historical or Existing Use: DuPont operated the Cookson site from the 1920s until 1983. Huebach acquired site and sold it to Cookson in 1989. Cookson has operated a pigment production facility, but has ceased operations in 1998 and is dismantling and removing equipment.

    Acreage: 7.0 acre Kingsland Drum site

    14.0 acre Cookson/DuPont site

    Plans for Redevelopment: Acquisition and redevelopment by Newark Refrigerated Warehouse of adjacent 7 acre and 14 acre parcels for food market and refrigerated warehouse similar to the Hunts Point Market in Bronx, NY.

    Type of Contamination: Unspecified at this time. ISRA case with DER on file. Quarterly groundwater monitoring is ongoing. Paved/capped site in 1996 which covers 90 percent of site except for capped landfill. Accumulating groundwater data to establish effect of capping. DuPont is delineating spill areas along the Conrail right-of-way adjacent to site.

    Estimated Cost of Remediation/Redevelopment: Minimum cost of $17 million for site acquisition, expansion and construction. No remediation estimate established.

    Timeline for Redevelopment: Newark Refrigerated Warehouse reports that market conditions justify rapid redevelopment and would like to commence with remediation, acquisition and redevelopment as soon as possible. Estimated two year build out timeline.

    Current Status of Redevelopment: Due to multiple past ownership, responsibility for remediation by each past owner may delay development.

    NRW reports that an additional owner of an adjacent parcel needed to complete the redevelopment plan is asking for increasing sale prices.

    Niagara Falls, NY

    The City of Niagara Falls, New York is requesting proposals for the site investigation of four pieces of property, 1731-1903 College Avenue, collectively known as the Hazorb Site in Niagara Falls. The property is currently owned by the City of Niagara Falls.

    The 5.22 acre site was first occupied in 1910 by National Carbide Company which manufactured carbon electrodes. National Carbide changed its name to Union Carbide Corporation, Carbon Products Division in 1963 and to UCAR Carbon Company, Inc. in 1989. The subject parcel was part of a larger manufacturing facility.

    The National Plant was one of three Niagara Falls area facilities owned and operated by Union Carbide under the name of Niagara Plant. Carbon and graphite manufacturing occurred at each of the three Niagara Plants, and wastes from all three plants were landfilled on the Republic Plant property in the Town of Niagara. The plants manufactured coal-based carbon products that were used by alloy reduction smelters. Products manufactured included specialty machined graphite, carbon liners, cathode blocks and electrodes for furnacing. Waste products from plant operations included carbonaceous waste, primarily dust from dust collectors, fire brick waste, and raw materials packaging.

    The National Plant was sold to Niagara Vest Inc. in December of 1986. The plant consisted of approximately 24 acres of land and 550,000 square feet for heavy industrial type buildings. Efforts to market the entire facility were fruitless. The property was subdivided in 1987 and sold to individual businesses in an industrial park type manner. The site has been acquired by the City of Niagara Falls for back taxes. This long-vacant eyesore is being investigated under the City of Niagara Fall’s EPA Brownfield Economic Redevelopment Pilot Grant.

    Tract II Property: 3001-3201 Highland Avenue

    The Tract II Property is a collection of vacant land and abandoned buildings located at the intersection of Highland and Beech Avenues. The 27 acres of land cannot be marketed in its present condition and is not economically feasible to be privately redeveloped. The City of Niagara Falls obtained this property, and any environmental concerns, through foreclosure.

    Though vacant, further study of the Tract II property is necessary in order to return this property to private and productive use. Investigation and redevelopment of this site will release 27 acres of vacant lands for light industrial, productive use.

    The site was initially occupied by a Moore Business Products factory and warehouse and then occupied by a number of warehousing concerns over the years. One substantial vacant building was demolished on the site in 1992. An underground garage that was attached to the demolished building remains on the site. Through occupying almost an acre of land, removal or renovation of the garage is not anticipated, although sealing and filling the structure will be studied.

    Though it is located within New York State’s Economic Development Zone, possible environmental contamination has discouraged reuse. Once the extent of environmental uncertainties are determined, the site will be marketed towards light industrial use. A significant buffer area will be maintained on the southern property line, which abuts a primarily residential area. Funding for the Site Investigation has been awarded under New York State’s 1996 Clean Water/Clean Air Bond Act Environmental Project Program.

    North Chicago, IL

    One brownfield site is located on the shore of Lake Michigan and currently owned by Abbott Laboratories, a major pharmaceutical company. This brownfield is currently vacant and is composed of 54 acres. This brownfield was originally the site of US Steel, which closed down in 1979. This parcel was composed of many buildings, a density that would not be allowed according to today’s zoning regulations. It is also a contaminated site with various elements present. The impact this brownfield has on the community is that it is a major parcel in the City that could be developed as an industrial use and add to an already crippled tax base. Almost 70 percent of the land in North Chicago is non-taxable with the Great Lakes Naval Training Center making up about 45-50 percent of that total. Abbott Laboratories is looking to develop this site in the future, but the infrastructure is inadequate with no roads or sewers present.

    Another brownfield site in the City of North Chicago is a 10 acre site, located just south of the above-referenced 54 acre site. This brownfield was originally the site for Cyclone Fence, which also closed its door in the 1970s. This parcel was also composed of many buildings, a density that would not be allowed according to today’s zoning regulations. It is also a contaminated site with high levels of lead present. Just recently the building was demolished and currently stands vacant. Various entities, including the City of North Chicago and Abbott Laboratories, have included an interest in purchasing the site. But due to the cost of the property and the potential clean up costs, it has remained idle. Again, the impact on the community is the loss of tax dollars.

    Norwich, CT

    Former Roto Print Site

    Site address: 2 Taftville-Occum Road (Rte. 97)

    The Roto Print site sits on the banks of the Shetucket River in Norwich, Connecticut. The site was home to a textile mill until a fire destroyed the building in February of 1986, and has been abandoned since that time. The owner owes substantial back taxes on the property and has been willing to turn the property over to the City in lieu of the back taxes, but has not wanted to allow the City access to the property prior to that time. The City, without the means to clean up the property, has not wanted to take it without assessments. Now the City, through the Norwich Community Development Corporation, has received $1.5 million in funding from the State to clean up the property and transform it into a riverfront park. It is anticipated that either the City or the Norwich Community Development Corporation will acquire the land shortly. Additional grant funds have been requested through the US EPA for comprehensive site assessment.

    The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has been involved with the site since the Roto Print building burned in February of 1986. Along with EPA, DEP’s Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Program performed a limited assessment of the site in 1997 and again in 1998. The site is 5 acres in size. Of this, approximately 1/2 acre has had some site assessment. The remainder still needs to be assessed.

    The Occur neighborhood in the City of Norwich does not have ample open and recreational space for its residents. The site at the former Roto Print plant would be ideal for public open space. It is located along the Shetucket River, providing a spectacular scenic backdrop, and it is ideally located within the neighborhood itself. The proposed reuse plan is to preserve the site as open space and develop a park. The park would have a playground for neighborhood children, a picnic area, handicap access, fishing, and a boat launch. The hope is to fill the site and seed it, but comprehensive environmental assessments must be completed before cleanup can commence.

    The Governor awarded $1.5 million to the Norwich Community Development Corporation (the City’s economic development arm), which is available for clean-up cost related to the site. The City has plans to construct sidewalks in the vicinity of the proposed park to ensure the safety of the park users and those walking on the adjacent street. The City of Norwich Department of Parks and Recreation also has playground equipment available for the site. It is currently in storage, waiting to be installed. The equipment is valued at approximately $25,000. The Department also has a Community Development Block Grant of $50,000 for improvements to the Occur site. Actual improvements will be dependent on the assessment and cleanup of the site. Finally, the City will eventually acquire the land, which is assessed at $141,910, in lieu of back taxes. Community groups, such as the Kiwanis, have offered to help with the planting, seeding and general renovation of the site once it has been cleaned.

    Greenville Industrial District

    The Greeneville Industrial District comprises the remaining buildings of those industries that once lined the Shetucket River and its adjacent canal in Greeneville, an area of Norwich, CT. By 1840, three major mills had been established, producing cotton goods and paper and finishing textiles. The portion of the site most recently inhabited by Capehart Corporation is vacant today. The City has received a Brownfields Pilot Grant from the US EPA to perform site assessments on this property, and because of the potential reuse of the site, it has been listed as first priority for the grant funds.

    A comprehensive mill study done in 1992 outlines the past use of the structure, provides sketches of the buildings, and proposes possible reuse activities. It was suggested that the Capehar Corporation section of the site could be reused as retail or office space. The total square footage of this section is 258,000.

    There are back tax issues related to the site, and the Norwich Community Development Corporation has been working with the owner of the site to agree upon next steps.

    We hope that we will learn from the activity related to this site. It could become a model for the City dealing with other brownfield sites in the future.

    Ogden, UT

    In 1997, the City was awarded a Regional Brownfields Grant from the Environmental Protection Agency. City staff has worked together to outline a project that will benefit the City’s downtown business district in a number of ways. The Ogden City Central Business District Brownfield’s Project ("the Project") is designed to carry out EPA’s stated purpose of fostering national brownfield redevelopment models by formulating a plan that will remove the environmental and economic barriers to redevelopment of existing brownfields and reclaim potentially valuable property in the central business district. Ogden has identified approximately 27 city blocks within the central business district and a large piece of railroad property of about the same size as the focus for long-term redevelopment. The Project will be Ogden’s first step to reclaiming these potentially valuable properties for the benefit of the community.

    This Project focuses on a four block area — including the former Ogden Ironworks site — located near other downtown properties recently developed or under development in the downtown area. The City’s Lindquist Field baseball stadium, located just one block from the priority area, proved an environmental challenge for the City and is a good example of the City’s commitment to brownfields redevelopment.

    Representatives from the City’s Business Development Department, Public Works Department, Community Development Department’s Planning and Housing Divisions and the City Attorney’s Office have formed a Project Steering Committee with Public Works taking the lead on the project. The Committee meets regularly to track the progress of the project.

    To date, the Committee has identified four stages critical to completion of the Project:

    Stage I: Identifying, assessing and characterizing the contaminants and potential risks in the priority area.

    Stage II: Developing a prioritized list of appropriate land uses for the site given the level and type of contaminants found during the Phase I/Phase II environmental assessment and developing remediation plans appropriate for the intended land use to address the environmental risks for the priority area.

    Stage III: Identifying existing cost effective financing solutions and/or developing creative financing solutions to promote private or public/private partnership redevelopment efforts.

    Stage IV: Developing a comprehensive public relations program to identify, contact and educate existing owners, potential buyers/developers and other important players regarding the economic feasibility of brownfields redevelopment. Make an initial marketing effort (estimated time frame of four months.)

    The City is still in the Stage I process. A Phase I environmental assessment has been completed for the priority area. The City is currently working with several of the property owners who chose not to participate in Phase I initially in hopes of encouraging them to participate in the project. Staff members are happy with the progress to date and hope to continue the momentum on the project.

    In completing these stages, the City believes it can attain its specific goal of demonstrating the viability of redeveloping brownfield sites and its general goal of enhancing the City’s progressive image. The end product of the Ogden City Central Business District Brownfields Project will be a well-documented, user-friendly informational package describing the potential for redevelopment and the optimal land uses for the priority area, the estimated costs for remediation and the financing alternatives that will make redevelopment economically feasible. The City plans to complete the majority of the tasks outlined below by contracting the work out, which will be completed within three years.

    Oklahoma City, OK

    The current priority list is as follows:

    2121 S. Westwood maintenance facility; under risk assessment and has interested purchaser,

    J.C. Penney and John A. Brown Buildings: BEDI grant applied for rehabilitation,

    Indian Cultural Center area: proposed,

    North Canadian River Project: ESA performed,

    Railroad property north of Bricktown: proposed parking lot, ESA performed, and

    601 East Sheraton maintenance facility: to be vacated upon completion of new maintenance facility.

    Philadelphia, PA

    Sovereign Oil Site

    This three acre lot was the site of a former oil blending and storage company. The buildings and storage tanks had been cleared by the City of Philadelphia with help from the U.S. Coast Guard. This site sits in the heart of the Federally designated American Street Empowerment Zone and State designated Enterprise Zone. In addition to being an environmental threat to the surrounding community, it has been the site of illicit activities and dumping. The redevelopment of this parcel will spur other developments along the corridor. The two major break-throughs that have allowed us to move forward on this property are: 1) The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s assistance in the form of a clean-up grant. This allowed the City to acquire the property at Sheriff Sale knowing that sufficient funding was available for remediation/engineering controls (the clean-up plan was approved by the State in advance), and 2) Finding a local company willing to develop the site. We anticipate the construction of a 60,000 square foot warehouse and distribution facility on this site with a total project cost of over $4 million. The major impediments were lack of funding and questions regarding the uncertainty of costs. The state’s brownfield reuse program helped the City to address both issues.

    During the Sovereign Oil project one major glitch came just before the financing settlement. Apparently, the local staff of the major bank involved did not understand the nature of the remedial action, even though a State "Consent Order and Agreement" had been forwarded to the bank five months earlier. There was a problem with the bank’s counsel as well, who, in trying to protect the bank, almost derailed the deal. In an unusual turn of events, the developer replaced the bank with additional equity since there was no time left to negotiate with the bank’s attorney (the developer had already begun construction and needed an initial payment ASAP). Luckily, the Empowerment Zone and Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation were flexible enough to work in this change.

    Marion Avenue Site

    This four acre lot was a former industrial site that we have targeted for a 25,000 plus square-foot tele-reservations center. This land is within both the Federally-designated West Parkside Empowerment Zone and the State-designated Enterprise Zone. The City of Philadelphia has recently finished acquiring the last portion of the site and is in the process of obtaining a Phase II Environmental Assessment of the property. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is assisting in the funding of a portion of the Phase II. After a State assisted clean-up, if necessary, the developer will acquire the property from the City and construct a new building. This property is important because of its proximity to residences, a local church and a developing industrial park. The main impediments to this project have been the acquisition of the land and the brokering of a partnership between the business, church and community. The main reason this has moved forward is the willingness of a developer to work through the many details with the City and other interested parties.

    Pontiac, MI

    Kennett Road Landfill Site

    This is an approximate 61 acre former City landfill site, located at the Westerly boundary of the City. The landfill has been closed for 30 plus years and is currently undergoing an environmental assessment (Phase I and II).

    The subject property was previously being considered as the site of a new state-of-the-art steel mill. However, due to the cost associated with building such a facility on a former landfill site, a greenfield site was identified as the preferred location.

    Request for Proposals is being prepared for the development of the subject site into a commercial or industrial use, preferably an industrial park. We have already received inquires from developers interested in the site as a golf course and a supplier industrial park.

    Since the property is currently off the tax rolls (owned by the City), the development of this site would result in additional tax base (real & personal property taxes and income tax) to the city, as well as several hundred new jobs for City residents.

    USF Holland Trucking Company

    During the fall of 1998, USF Holland, Inc. acquired a vacant former 30 acre motor freight terminal on Joslyn Avenue, in the Northern section of the City. Plans are to demolish the existing structures and construct a new truck terminal in 1999. The company estimates that it will invest approximately $15 Million in building, fixtures, equipment and training.

    The new terminal is expected to have 80 or more doors and will employ up to 250 employees within three years. This development will also provide jobs for city residents.

    This development will improve a site that has remained vacant and deteriorating for the past five or more years and will be a significant improvement to the area.

    Richmond, CA

    Carlson Boulevard Site

    A two acre former railcar refurbishing site located in the center of Richmond. The site is contaminated with lead from past paint removal operations. Although a cleanup was conducted on the site in the 1970s, the remaining lead levels were as high as 4,000 ppm. A group of townhomes was constructed next to the site, and children were frequently found on the site. An effort to fence the property succeeded for only a short time. Recent citizen inquiries to the City Planning Department and County Health Department resulted in a goal to fence the site, to collect additional information on the extent of contamination, to conduct a community meeting, and to remove the high levels of lead. One problem was funding, since the previous owner was bankrupt. After requesting the assistance of the state environmental agency, they determined that the site was a hazard, and agreed to fence the yard and remove contaminated soil, at an estimated cost of about $1 million. The fence has been installed with warning signs, and the clean up is scheduled for February 1999. In addition, the County has met with local residents to encourage them to have their children’s blood levels tested.

    In Progress: Terminal 1

    A 14 acre site on San Francisco Bay that was used for the storage and transfer of bulk liquids. Beginning in 1918, until it was closed in the mid-80s, fuels, ethylene glycol and vegetable oil were stored and transferred at the site. The City-owned property is being developed for residential use under an exclusive agreement with a private developer. Under the agreement, the City will remove the storage tanks and piping, and the developer’s consultant is preforming the Phase II site investigation and will develop a site cleanup plan.

    Completed: Marina Bay

    A large, 900 plus acre site adjacent to San Francisco Bay was the site of significant industrial activity, including the Henry Kaiser shipyards that built 727 Liberty ships during WWII. The City purchased the property in 1977 from the Santa Fe Railroad. In the late 1980s the City remediated the site. Using innovative soil remediations and waste minimization and use techniques, the cost of remediation was greatly reduced. In addition, the City was able to recover 85 percent of these cleanup costs from Kaser, Santa Fe Railroad, and the Federal government. A private developer was used to transform the site into a water-oriented community consisting of 2,000 homes, a 1,500-berth marina, several parks and open space, and commercial uses.

    Richmond, VA

    Cofer Road Site

    One of the major issues that needed to be addressed was to determine if the fill contains hazardous material and if degradation of this fill is occurring. An active degradation process that results in constant consolidation limits the surface redevelopment options available for foundation depth, building height, and transportation vehicle load. A non-degrading (stable) fill area might only need vehicular compaction activities for redevelopment purposes, although foundation depth is still limited due to fill contents. Unfortunately, its compaction test are not reliable, therefore indicator tests for degradation are suggested. The measurement of pH and total dissolved solids of collected leachate is a good starting point, as well as surface gas and refuse biochemical methane potential.

    A consultant identified five technically feasible approaches to making the landfill area suitable for development: 1) use the landfill area as a parking lot or other similar use not requiring heavy load bearing capacity, 2) install foundation supports/piers to depths below the waste material. 3) dynamic compaction, 4) site stabilization, and 5) excavation and removal of unsuitable material from the site. Dynamic compaction was recommended as the preferred option to address the site suitability problems presented by the unpermitted landfill.

    Based on information from the previous investigations of the site and a site inspection, it was determined to provide remediation alternatives for the unpermitted landfill. Four options were recommended for the unpermitted landfill area at the Cofer Road site: 1) perform heavy dynamic compaction, completely cover the fill, and divert upgradient surface water and groundwater to be collected and treated in a downgradient constructed wetland; 2) modify option 1 by injecting and reinjecting leachate that is produced in the landfill to increase degradation; 3) perform vehicular compaction if the landfill is degraded; 4) completely remove the landfill. It is recommended that a geophysical survey be performed for all four options, to detect possible large objects (such as buried drums). Also recommended is that a radiation survey be performed.

    The DED is having ongoing discussions with various companies/interested parties that have expressed an interest in developing the Cofer Road site.

    Two potential users had expressed some limited interest in 1997. DED continues to pursue these prospects.

    1305 Sherwood Avenue Site

    The successful collaboration among the City of Richmond, Virginia, Whitehall-Robins Healthcare, Inc. and the Richmond Brownfields Pilot, created by a $200,000 EPA grant, brought 550 new jobs (including 250 temporary positions) and millions of dollars of investment to northern Richmond. The City gave a 4.5 acre parcel of municipally owned land to Whitehall-Robins, the Richmond area’s 25th-largest private employer, so the company may retain, consolidate, and expand its existing pharmaceutical research facility at 1208 Sherwood Avenue.

    The City of Richmond owned the adjacent parcel occupied by the Richmond Ambulance Authority, which also housed the City’s emergency 911 services. In a cooperative effort, the City made this parcel an integral element of the Whitehall-Robins expansion project, which generated investment in excess of $75 million and created 300 new jobs.

    The project consisted of the renovation of Whitehall-Robins’ 270,000 square-foot analytical research and development facility, with an additional 50,000 square feet of laboratory and office space on the newly acquired property. The research center includes office, laboratory, and light industrial areas to house 350 employees. Of these positions, approximately 250 will be new jobs, while the remaining 100 are preserved positions that would have been moved to company facilities in New Jersey. Construction and development costs were $75 million, and created temporary jobs for approximately 200 workers. It is also estimated that 50 jobs were created for demolition and hazardous material disposal. Investment of a portion of the Whitehall-Robins site, formerly used as an armory, revealed contamination from lead, asbestos, and other substances. Whitehall-Robins spent $2 million to clean up and redevelop the site. Once complete, the site will generate an average of $100,000 in annual tax revenue.

    Expansion of the Whitehall-Robins facility is one of the largest projects within Richmond’s State Enterprise Zone (EZ). The State EZ designation offers special tax incentives (real estate, equipment, real property improvement, and other tax incentive programs) while encouraging private investment in distressed areas, environmental cleanup, new job creation, and employment of local residents. As a result of Richmond’s designation as a Brownfields Pilot under EPA’s Brownfields Initiative, EPA used funding to provide environmental consultants to the Whitehall-Robins project to advise on site assessments and appropriate cleanup techniques.

    Rockford, IL

    Downtown Brewery Complex

    The proposed project is located at 216 East Prairie Street in the downtown area, adjacent to the Rock River, and is currently owned by James Stormont. The Brewery property consists of approximately 2 acres of land and a brick building divided into several tenant spaces. The original structure was built in 1880, with additions through 1962. The main portion of the building on the east portion of the property is three stories, including a basement, loading docks, an elevator that serves the main portion of the building, and a condemned freight elevator. The entire building is approximately 89,000 square feet.

    The structure originally housed Rockford Brewery from 1880 until 1913, when prohibition forced the company into bankruptcy. The property has been owned by the Stormont family since 1925. Past occupants of the building include Modern Laundry and Dry Cleaning, Rock-A-Bye Diaper Service, storage and various other small tenants (woodworking, furniture refinishing, and others). The dry cleaning service operated from 1923 until 1976. The building is on the Illinois Historic Structures Survey Listing and is eligible for the National Register.

    The Icon Group is interested in purchasing the property and utilizing 77,700 square feet of the historic building. The complex will consist of 8,600 square feet of common space; 31 loft style apartments utilizing 34,100 square feet and two (2) restaurants that total 35,000 square feet. One of the restaurants would be a theme-style chain restaurant; Hard Rock, etc. The other would be an upscale, fine dining establishment. The City has encouraged development of this historic site for over twenty years. Development of the Brewery property will serve as the northeast anchor to the City's efforts to revitalize downtown Rockford.

    The proposed project area is approximately 3 acres and includes a manufacturing and dye company, CelluSuede. CelluSuede manufacturers felt for various companies. During the manufacturing phase, nylon, cotton, and other natural and synthetic fabrics are chemically dyed. Phase I and Phase II environmentals show two possible contaminates, methylene chloride and tetrachoroethene. These chemicals are most likely linked to the building’s history as a site for the storing and use of dry cleaning solvents. To determine the level of contamination and the amount of funds needed to correct this problem, a study of ground water contamination must be completed. The cost of this study is $10,000. Depending on the level of contamination, mitigation may cost as much as $2 million. The total cost of the project including the relocation of CelluSuede is estimated at $6.15 million.

    The two major obstacles to the development of this project are: the relocation of CelluSuede and the mitigation of the site. CelluSuede must be relocated to allow for parking and visibility of the Brewery. In order to facilitate financing, mitigation of the site is necessary. The possibility of chemicals from CelluSuede further contaminating the site has caused local lending institutions to shy away from participating in the financing of this venture.

    The City of Rockford will gain approximately $2 million dollars per year in additional revenue, when this project is completed. The Brewery Complex will also serve as a catalyst to entice middle and upper income individuals to live in the downtown area, creating a viable mixed-income area.

    Reed-Chatwood Industrial Complex

    The proposed project is located on Rock Street in Southwest Side adjacent to the Rock River. This site consists of a 24 acre industrial complex of 19 older industrial buildings that once served as the head quarters and entire manufacturing facility for the Baber-Colman Manufacturing Company. At one time, Barber-Colman employed nearly 6,000 workers. Today, the complex is occupied by the Reed Chatwood Manufacturing company, which, along with more than 20 other businesses and organizations, uses 350,000 square feet of space. The major tenant, Reed Chatwood, has filed bankruptcy and is in the process of being liquidated. With the impending loss of this major tenant, the complex owners may not be able to maintain the complex. Consequently, the tenants in the complex are in danger of being displaced. The Rockford Local Development Corporation (RLDC) is evaluating options to put the property to its best and highest use.

    Preliminary plans capitalize on the shortage of industrial space in Rockford by examining the feasibility of the reuse of some buildings and the demolition of others. These plans will help create attractive land for new development. RLDC is also considering using other existing buildings to create a mix-use business incubator facility, as well as rental properties for area businesses. RLDC has also relocated its office to the complex and is helping the property owners attract new tenants. RLDC was solely responsible for developing the Greater Rockford Industrial Park (GRIP), which consists of 122 acres. GRIP is fully sold and has 1,200 workers housed in fourteen buildings with 750,000 square feet of floor space. RLDC’s success at GRIP, clearly demonstrates their ability to complete large industrial development projects. The project site is located adjacent to the railroad and Illinois Highway 2 to allow for both rail and truck traffic. It is also located in the City's Enterprise Zone, which allows for tax abatements and other incentives.

    At its conclusion, this project will include privately owned parcels that house commercial manufacturing companies and other mix-use developments. This project is the first step in creating a strong economic base to revitalize one of the two major gateways to the City.

    Rome, NY

    In August 1995, the City of Rome undertook an industrial area reuse plan for a 200 acre abandoned brownfield site in the eastern portion of Rome. The primary purpose of the project is to redevelop the site that has laid dormant for over 25 years for industrial and commercial purposes. Much of the site has deteriorated structures and failed infrastructure. The City has not realized the tax revenue/economic potential of this site since before 1970 when over 10,000 people worked in the area. The industrial park, as it currently exists, is one of Rome’s most unattractive areas and the City has taken significant steps toward redevelopment.

    The East Rome Business Park is located in the east-central portion of the City of Rome. It is bounded by East Dominick Street to the north, the Mohawk River to the west, the New York State Barge Canal to the south, and an irregular line extending from the eastern side of 1212 Dominick Street to the Barge Canal at the east. It is along a principal gateway into the community (Dominick Street and Route 46), and is within the City's New York State designated Economic Development Zone (EDZ). The EDZ clearly defines areas within the City of great economic distress and includes the 200 acre industrial area, the recently realigned Griffiss Air Force Base and the adjacent residential neighborhoods.

    Over the past year and a half the City has been working toward their primary goal of redeveloping the 200 acre brownfield industrial area (formerly known as General Cable) as the East Rome Business Park (ERBP), a light industrial park. The focus of the project has been to implement a coordinated approach that advances the 18 private property owners in the ERBP towards environmental mitigation and economic development. To help catalyze the brownfield project, the City of Rome chose to focus on redevelopment of a 17.4 acre core site within the 200 acre industrial area known as the General Cable Property and owned by Mr. Charles Gaetano. This property was selected based on the willing involvement of the property owner to participate in a large public and private initiative. Additionally, this core area was selected by the City based on the theory that redevelopment of a core piece of property will feed into the economic revitalization of the entire industrial park. Toward this end, the City has entered into a development agreement with Mr. Gaetano. Subsequently three real estate development agreements were signed for development of a new public road and for two of the six development parcels within the core area.

    On Thursday, November 13, 1996 the Mayor of Rome, Representative Sherwood L. Boehlert (R), Assemblywoman RoAnn M. Destito D-116, City Common Council members, the Director of Community Planning and Economic Development, and city residents attended a press conference to officially announce a "New Era of Opportunity in Rome." Mayor Joseph A. Griffo, after a year and a half of preparatory work by staffed consultants, announced the public/private sector plans to redevelop the East Rome Business Park and initially, the 17.4 acre core area.

    Focus is on the first two manufacturing projects: Parcel #4, Pecoraro Dairy with a 42,086 square foot building, and Parcel #6, Canterbury Press with a 20,000 square foot building. The property owner, Mr. Gaetano, has signed a development agreement with each business owner contingent upon the roadway being constructed. Opportunities to expand now exist. Proceeds from the land sale will enable the property owner and City to generate cash-flow to prepare the site, including environmental remediation, demolition, and reconstruction. In addition to local road improvements catalyzing real estate, it is also complementary to the existing regional transportation system.

    Financial commitments from various public and private sources have amounted to nearly $8.5 million for remediation and development of the 17.4 acre core property. The City needs and additional $965,355 from NYSDOT to fund roadway construction. With regard to the funding breakdown for redevelopment, the City has signed a development agreement with the property owner. Each party agreed to undertake the following activities: environmental remediation, demolition of selected structures and construction. Environmental investigation and remediation was funded from a number of sources including proceeds from the land sale, City CDBG funds and a grant the City received from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), one of only 60 awards nationwide.

    The funding for reconstruction of structures has been committed from funds secured by the developer through the land sale and development agreements, as well as the Rome Industrial Development Center (RIDC). Finally the City has committed to reconstructing sewer and water within the core property. The City now seeks financial commitment from NYSDOT to fill the funding "gap" for the reinvestment of road and storm drainage within the core area. Through the combination of these resources, The City will have assembled $9.5 million to redevelop the East Rome Business Park.

    Following are some key statistics/points that relate directly to the ERBP:

    Total Acres: Core Property = 17.4 acres

    Road ROW = 2.77 acres

    Total Cost of Infrastructure: City, et al. = $3,569,134

    NYSDOT = $ 965,355

    Total Business Investments: At full build-out = $24,750,000

    For projects 1 &2 = $4,950,000

    Total Building Construction: At full build-out = 509,652 square feet

    For Projects 1 & 2 = 183,140 square feet

    Total Employment At full build-out = 503 FTE

    For Projects 1 & 2 = 153 FTE over 5 years

    For surrounding businesses = 11 FTE, 6 PTE

    Salt Lake City, UT

    The Union Pacific South Yard

    The Union Pacific South Yard occupies approximately 40 acres of vacant land in west downtown. Since the last USCM survey, this project idea has been fully studied and The Boyer Company has purchased the property from Union Pacific on December 23, 1998. The fact that it has made it this far is quite significant, and the result of many major market changes that have occurred in and around the yard.

    The yard forms a significant barrier to the west and land values drop dramatically when compared with land to the east. The yard has not been actively used for decades, although it is still filled with railroad tracks. The historic Union Pacific Depot on the east side of the yard, also sits vacant. The seismic upgrades necessary to bring the depot back into active use are estimated at up to $20 million, and are complicated by the fact that the depot sits atop unstable peat moss. Facing these costs, Union Pacific Railroad Company donated the depot building to the State of Utah. The South Yard was always assumed to have extensive environmental contamination due to its history of rail maintenance and its proximity to a Superfund site. However, with some assistance from the EPA Brownfields Site Assessment Program, contaminants have been identified and problems have been determined to be manageable and economically feasible to mitigate.

    The recent construction of the Delta Center and major public transportation projects currently underway in Salt Lake City appear to be changing the fate of the yards. They began to change the marketability of the area and provided Union Pacific with an incentive to abandon the railyard and offer the property for sale. By coincidence, the interstate running three blocks west of the yards is under reconstruction. The City negotiated for years with the State and Union Pacific Railroad Company to have three nearby interstate viaducts shortened, contingent upon the removal of rail along 400 West and 500 West streets. This agreement was reached in November 1997, and the first of the rails are being removed. At the same time, various developers began negotiations for the yard property. The Boyer Company was chosen in December 1997. They spent the next year working with the Jerde Partnership to develop a $250,000,000 mixed-use project with office space, a hotel, entertainment areas, and retail space. They are working to incorporate the historic train depot into the project. Also, 650 housing units will be constructed, with at least twenty percent designated for low to moderate income persons. Significant infrastructure upgrades will be necessary to make the rail yard suitable for the development. Employment is estimated for 10,000 people.

    The Delta Center

    Economic deterioration and the potential for contamination formed the basis for the brownfields status of this 10 acre site on Block 79, Plat "A" on the original city layout. Where the block was once a drain on the community, it is now the driving force surrounding the revitalization of western downtown. Block 79 had an abandoned gas station, along with office space, parking, and a horse stable. One block east of the historic Union Pacific Depot, the site was a detriment to the image of the area and as such, its created an artificial western boundary to the Central Business District. In 1989, Larry H. Miller, the owner of the Utah Jazz, a National Basketball Association team, determined that the Salt Palace was no longer sufficient for the growing needs of the NBA team. Mr. Miller was able to secure a $60 million construction loan, and Salt Lake City began to search for a site for a new stadium. Block 79 was close enough to the downtown and major highways to provide the accessibility needed. The Redevelopment Agency of Salt Lake City was able to issue a $25 million tax exempt bond to acquire the block and construct a public plaza to surround the stadium. In a public-private partnership, the land was leased to Mr. Miller for fifty years and construction began on the new Delta Center. During construction, some environmental contamination was discovered associated with the old gas station. It was remediated and a ground water monitoring system was set up.

    Today the Delta Center is a critical anchor that has encouraged the westward expansion of the Central Business District. The 20,400-seat arena now employs 1,452 people and generates approximately $1 million in tax increment revenue annually. The North-South light rail project will terminate at a new station on the north side of the stadium. The Delta Center may also be the figure skating venue for the 2002 Winter Olympics.

    Block 49

    The 10 acre block known as Block 49, Plat "A" from the original city plat, is just east of historic Pioneer Park, where one of the first Mormon encampments was located. It is on the southwestern edge of the Central Business District. In this century, the block was the site of rail yards, various auto shops and gas stations. Efforts to redevelop this block have hit upon many impediments in the last 20 years. Crime in the historic park was one barrier to marketability; extensive environmental contamination was another. Delays resulted when a pioneer cemetery was discovered and archeological surveys were required. Then the block’s housing developer went bankrupt and abandoned the project for many years. The block became jokingly known as the "plywood test site".

    The Redevelopment Agency of Salt Lake City (RDA) purchased the property out of bankruptcy in 1990. Environmental studies found six leaking underground storage tanks. During removal, more problems were discovered, including an additional LUST site, a dump, and a 40-foot underground diesel plume. The RDA undertook the obligation to remediate them all. A determination to see housing developed on the site and a strong coordinating relationship between the RDA and the State Department of Environmental Quality were essential in keeping the project moving forward.

    The project’s site design was important in keeping remediation costs manageable. Parking lots, instead of housing, are placed over the former LUST sites. The first phase of development on the block brought 96 new apartments, including 35 low-income units, in 1996. A 118-suite Marriott Residence Inn was completed in 1997. An additional 209 housing units, including a day care facility, have been constructed and rentals will begin in January 1999.

    San Diego, CA

    Barrio Logan Emerging Brownfield Pilot Project

    The City of San Diego has been awarded EPA funding for the Barrio Logan Emerging Brownfield Pilot Project. The Barrio Logan community has been concerned about the presence of environmentally contaminating businesses adjacent to residential uses, particularly metal plating and chemical storage facilities.

    This pilot project includes the partnership between the City of San Diego and two community based organizations, collaborating to address this community issue, and enhance the livability of the Barrio Logan community. The grant partners include the Environmental Health Coalition, (EHC), a community based organization initiating solutions to activities impacting the environment, and MAAC Project (Metropolitan Area Advisory Council). MAAC is a community-based organization engaged in a number of projects such as social services, housing and community development. MAAC is the developer for the site rescue.

    The pilot project identified seven sites as emerging brownfields. These are privately-owned sites dispersed within the community, occupied by existing businesses that have regulatory agency histories of mishandling hazardous materials and are adjacent to existing residential land uses.

    Presently, one of the seven sites has been identified as a priority emerging brownfield site due to its extensive regulatory history, and adjacent location to family occupied housing units. This site is the focus of the project activities.

    The site is under one ownership, and tenant occupied by a metal plating facility. The site has been occupied as a metal plating facility for approximately 20 years. It is approximately 7,500 square feet. The anticipated reuse is residential, to be constructed in calender year 1999. The hazardous materials reportedly used on the site includes copper cyanide, sodium cyanide, nickel plating, chromic acid, sodium hydroxide, halogenated acid salts, hydrochloric acid sulfuric acid and sodium hypochlorite. Pending the level of the contamination the remediation plan and cost estimate is to be determined. Preliminary estimates range from one to two hundred thousand dollars.

    Presently an application has been submitted for 108 and BEDI grant funding for anticipated site acquisition, remediation, and development. A hazardous material consultant is being selected to accomplish official Phase I and II studies. Discussions are held with the owner to obtain site access for contamination studies. Finally the developer is seeking financing and preparing concepts and plans for the subsequent reuse.

    The project objectives include the replacement of a business facility using contaminating hazardous materials adjacent to occupied residential buildings, the reestablishment of that business to another site among compatible facilities, and the use of available technology to safely handle hazardous materials.

    San Leandro, CA

    In 1994, Costco notified the City that they were considering a relocation to Oakland, a neighboring City. The loss of this major retailer would have been significant. Costco generates more than $500,000 a year in sales tax for the City, employs a number of residents, and provides essential commercial services to the community. The City and the community were committed to keeping Costco and immediately began to explore ways to retain Costco.

    The issues for Costco included a site large enough to accommodate a 135,000 square foot building, freeway access, and close proximity to its existing locations. The best location within San Leandro for a new Costco was directly across the street. The area was commonly referred to as the Phillips Lane properties and was part of a redevelopment project area. The previous uses of the properties consisted of trucking and related industries. Many of the parcels contained deteriorating and dilapidated structures as well as significant environmental contamination from underground storage tanks and aboveground spills.

    The San Leandro Redevelopment Agency proposed to acquire the Phillips Lane properties, construct the necessary public improvements, and deliver the site free from environmental contamination. In addition, the Redevelopment Agency agreed to rebate Costco the business license tax in the amount of $100,000 per year for five years, up to a maximum of $500,000. The tax rebate was subject to the City adopting a business license tax based on gross receipts. Costco agreed to purchase the properties from the redevelopment agency and to construct a 135,000 square foot store.

    The Redevelopment Agency entered into a Disposition and Development Agreement with Costco and acquired all the parcels through voluntary sales with the property owners. The environmental contamination was remediated during the summer of 1995. Costco completed construction during the fall and opened its new doors in January of 1996. The City is continuing to receive the benefits of the Costco retention through the continued sales tax and positive community feedback.

    Schenectady, NY

    The former Ladd’s Gas Station is located between Union Street, Erie Boulevard, and South College Street in the City of Schenectady, Schenectady County, New York. Gossmans Texaco Service Station was located across Erie Boulevard to the east of the approximately 0.25 acre site. Three buildings at the southwestern corner of Union Street and South College Street are vacant. The remaining buildings along the south side of Union Street are residential apartments. The site is located approximately 2,000 feet to the south east of the Mohawk River in the "stockade" section of the City of Schenectady.

    Geology/Hydrogeology: The surficial geology of the site is characterized as alluvial silty sand within the Mohawk River flood plain. Based on soil borings drilled during previous investigations the silty sand, which is approximately 20 to 30 feet thick, is overlain by fill in some areas of the site and surrounding properties. Bedrock beneath the study site is the Ordivician Schenectady formation, which consists of graywackes, siltstones, shales, and sandstones. The depth to bedrock in the vicinity of the site is unknown.

    The former Ladd's Gas Station is at an elevation of approximately 250 feet above mean seal level (amsl). The Mohawk River is located approximately 2,000 feet to the west and downgradient of the site.

    Water levels in 27 existing monitoring wells on the site and surrounding properties indicate that the water table is approximately 10 feet below ground surface (bgs). Based on water-level elevation reported during previous investigations in the study area, groundwater generally flows from east to west in the study area towards the Mohawk River.

    Site History: The Ladds owned and operated a gasoline service station at the site from the early 1920s until 1987. In 1997, the property was foreclosed upon and deeded to the City of Schenectady. In 1986, a gasoline underground storage tank (UST) which had failed a tightness test was excavated and removed from the site. During the tank removal, soil and groundwater contaminated with gasoline was discovered, prompting the removal of all 13 USTs from the site. Subsequent investigations revealed the presence of LNAPL on the water table and dissolved-phase petroleum constituents in groundwater on and downgradient (west) of the site. Approximately 5,300 cubic yards of petroleum contaminated soil were excavated from the site in 1986 and 1987.

    In 1989, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) installed a dual-phase (groundwater and LNAPL) extraction system downgradient and west of the site. The NYSDEC terminated the operation of this system in 1996. Fluid-level monitoring conducted in January 1997 indicated the lack of measurable LNAPL in on-site and off-site monitoring wells. Based on analysis of groundwater samples collected in 1997, a plume of gasoline contamination, primarily benzen, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), extend approximately 500 feet to the west of the site.

    Sheboygan, WI

    The City of Sheboygan recently created Tax Incremental #11 to remediate environmental problems and constrict infrastructure on a 53 acre former refinery site. The City has developed a partnership with Conoco Oil and a private developer to implement the project. The City will invest $3 million in infrastructure improvements and remediation and expects $30 million in private development.

    The City also recently obtained titles to do six contaminated sites that the County obtained through the in rem process. The County waived past due taxes and transferred the properties to the City. The City has since cleaned up three of the sites and plans to sell them and will clean up the other sites in the near future.

    Sierra Vista, AZ

    Old cement plant - no plans at this time

    Old mortuary - trying to obtain for a park

    Abandoned dry cleaners - no plans at this time

    Springfield, OH

    SPECO Site

    The site has been used for warehousing over the last 15 years and has seen no investment. Prior to that it was used for manufacturing and plating operations. The site is located at a major entrance to the city, is highly visible, and has good utility, street and rail infrastructure. Most of the buildings on the site are pre-1900 and have deteriorated to the point that they are not usable. The City is in the process of buying the building. At that point, we will do a Phase I under the State’s Voluntary Action Program with the intent of cleaning the site and remarketing it for a new use. Public and neighborhood involvement is encouraged and although it is too early to predict the reuse, it is likely to be commercial or retail.

    Belmont Property

    This property has been on the market for over a year. It is owned by an out of state holding company that refuses to deal with the known environmental concerns. The property has most recently been used as a trucking transfer site and a truck driving school site, but the environmental problems stem from an underground storage tank and from off site problems that could affect groundwater. The City has made an offer to the seller to take an option on the property and to set monitoring wells for the groundwater monitoring.

    Stockton, CA

    The Stockton Channel reaches from the San Joaquin River into the heart of downtown Stockton. The waterfront area around the channel was historically an important destination for business and pleasure, giving impetus and identity to Stockton. In spite of its location in the center of the City, the waterfront area and the adjacent downtown have experienced significant decay and disinvestment over the past several decades.

    Several long-range planning efforts have been undertaken for the waterfront and the adjacent downtown, however, revitalization has lagged and the image of the entire area has suffered. At this time, there is a sense of urgency in the community and on the City Council to expedite the improvement of the waterfront area. To facilitate the continuing revitalization of the waterfront, the City Council called for the creation of a 26-member citizen Waterfront Revival Task Force, chaired by the mayor.

    One of the challenges facing the task force was identifying a set of immediate actions that would be appropriate for the waterfront and to begin these actions immediately. Development of Weber Point and the Weber Block were key recommendations outlined by the task force. Weber Point, which is directly across from the Weber Block on water, is currently under construction. Completion is expected by mid-summer of 1999.

    The Weber Block is identified as a significant resource to the entire Stockton Community which should be maintained as open space with opportunities for vendors, benches, walkways, and possibly a water feature. It is a vital link between the historic Stockton Hotel, which will be redeveloped over the next few years, and Weber Point on the waterfront.

    Syracuse, NY

    Syracuse Rigging and Winkelman Brownfields Sites (Proposed Crossroads Industrial Park Re-Development)

    The site, comprised by combining the former Syracuse Rigging and Winkelman sites located at 341 Peat Street and 101-113 and 102 Greenway Avenue respectively, offers a high-visibility location immediately adjacent to, and between, Interstate Route 690 and Erie Boulevard East, both major east/west transportation arteries through the City of Syracuse. The entire combined site, approximately 15 acres in size has been vacant in excess of five years, since the previous owners vacated.

    Successful completion and occupancy of the new "Crossroads Commercial Park" will result in clean-up and re-use of two major vacant, environmentally contaminated sites in the City of Syracuse. Existing contamination of these sites includes petroleum products, solvents, and metals in the soils.

    Long term use of the Winkelman property as a commercial/industrial site evidenced by a Phase II Environmental Assessment suggests possible environmental contamination related to use of petroleum products, transformers containing polychlorinated bi-phenols (PCBs) and the possible presence of heavy metals in the soil. Per New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) review, the most immediate threat to public health on site is an area contaminated by a leaking transformer. This portion of the property is currently being cleaned by the DEC and is near completion.

    Clean-up of this site is especially significant since the intended site is highly visible when entering the City along major traffic routes from its eastern borders. Improving the site will help improve the image of this older urban area, thereby allowing it to compete more effectively for business development with nearby suburbia. It will further result in new job opportunities within one of the City's most highly distressed areas.

    The City of Syracuse has been awarded a $1 million Brownfields Economic Development Initiative Grant from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to be leveraged with $3 million in HUD-108 loan assistance and $975,000 in City of Syracuse financial assistance.

    Midtown Plaza Remedial Project

    Midtown Plaza is located on a 2.4 acre site in the 700 block of East Water Street in downtown Syracuse. It is bordered to the north by East Water Street, to the east by a parking lot near Forman Avenue, to the south by East Washington Street, and to the west by Almond Street. The majority of the site is occupied by an eight-story, 425,000 square foot building known as Midtown Plaza. The current structure was constructed in several phases from approximately 1908-1948 and served as the Smith-Corona typewriter factory until approximately 1960. The factory was renovated and the building served as office space from approximately 1965 to 1981. Since then the building has suffered from severe neglect and vandalism.

    Site Investigation: In July 1997, the City of Syracuse entered into a State Assistance Contract with DEC to perform a site investigation and evaluate remedial alternatives for the Midtown Plaza site. During the investigation, potential sources of contamination were identified and sampled. Surface soil, subsurface soil, groundwater, sediment, and asbestos samples were collected. The Site Investigation (SI) Report provided data to assess the environmental condition of the site and evaluate resulting environmental and human health concerns. Feasible and cost-effective alternatives for addressing site-related contamination were then evaluated in the Remedial Alternatives Report (RAR). The SI and RAR, both completed in January 1998, were the basis of DEC’s Record of Decision.

    Current Status: In July, the City contracted with Blasland, Bouck and Lee (BB&L) as professional consultants for the Midtown Plaza remedial project. BB&L subsequently developed plans and specifications for asbestos abatement and building demolition. Both the asbestos and demolition programs have since been bid out and awarded.

    S&S Environmental USA, Inc., of Rochester, won the bid for the asbestos abatement program with a low bid of $478,620. Under S&S’s contract the following tasks will be completed:

  •  Removal of the contaminated materials in identified sumps, catch basins and collection trenches;

  •  Remediation of PCB transformer oil identified within a flooded transformer vault;

  •  Removal and proper disposal of miscellaneous abandoned chemicals throughout the building; and

  •  Abatement of asbestos in all accessible areas of the building, in anticipation of building demolition.

    Bianchi Trison Corporation, of Syracuse, won the bid for the demolition project with a low bid of $1,563,480. Under Bianchi Trison’s contract the following tasks will be completed:

  •  The building will be completely demolished.

  •  A post-demolition investigation will be conducted to delineate the full extent of subsurface contamination identified during the SI. Source areas including contaminant "hot spots", dry wells or other subsurface features contributing to the identified contamination will be identified and associated contamination delineated;

  •  Contaminated soils will be excavated, as necessary, for off-site disposal; and

  •  The site will be backfilled using crushed demolition debris and other fill material, covered with topsoil, graded and seeded.

    The asbestos abatement program commenced in early October and will be completed by the end of the year. Building demolition is expected to begin in January.

    Remediation Grant: The Midtown Plaza project is being funded in part by the 1996 Clean Water/Clean Air Bond Act. The City has been awarded an Environmental Restoration "Brownfield" Project grant which will pay between 50 and 75 percent of the total project cost.


    The City of Tacoma, Washington views this project as a continuation of its leadership role in the development of innovative projects that both retain and create living-wage jobs while redeveloping environmentally distressed properties above a highly vulnerable aquifer. The Nalley Valley District which derives its name from a major food production company, The Nalley Company, has provided living-wage jobs since 1921. No large scale cleanup or redevelopment of brownfields has yet been initiated.

    The Nalley Valley is connected economically and environmentally to the Thea Foss Waterway/Commencement Bay. The Nalley Valley district is bounded on the east by South Tacoma Way commercial corridor as it enters the Thea Foss Waterway, on the south by South 56th Street, and on the west by Orchard Street. Topography plays a role in defining and delineating the Nalley Valley District, especially on its northerly end where bluffs serve to curve the industrial district from an east-west axis towards a north-south axis. The Burlington Northern Railroad and the old U.S. Highway 99 corridor also greatly influenced the location and shape of the industrial district.

    The 1,200 acre Nalley Valley District with more than 10,000 jobs is one of the most concentrated and vital areas for industry and employment opportunities in the Tacoma region, and also one of the most polluted. The Nalley Valley District has historically provided traditional and heavy manufacturing jobs with a small resident population. However, within several blocks of the heart of the Nalley Valley, low-income neighborhoods are homes for 30,000 residents with high rates of un- and underemployment. The City's Enterprise Community bisects a section of the Nalley Valley. Most of the area's 300 businesses employ 50 workers or less, thus they are acutely sensitive to additional cost of doing business, particularly regulatory, environmental and cleanup costs.

    The financial risk of environmental liability and the high cost and difficulty of site characterization/remediation due to the aquifer characteristics present barriers to cleaning up these properties. This is reflected in systematic underutilization where industrial employment has remained constant or has declined slightly since 1970s. A recent arrival is Performance Radiator which brings optimism for resurgence. Despite these barriers, this area is targeted to accommodate 2,000 additional jobs over the next 15 years.

    With over 100 brownfield sites identified so far, nearly all of the land is contaminated to some extent and relatively few of these sites have been cleaned up. Two of three EPA sites are the operable units of the larger Commencement Bay South Tacoma Channel Superfund (CB-STC) site. One of the operable units, The City municipal landfill (191 acres) has fully implemented the requirements of its Consent Decree (1993).

    The other operable unit, The South Tacoma Field (260 acres), brings economic re-use potential after Consent Decree controls are implemented. The size and location of the property provide a tremendous opportunity for the City to integrate brownfield redevelopment programs on this property.

    A large aquifer covers about 60 percent (500 acres) of the subsurface area of Nalley Valley. The Shallow Aquifer provides a significant amount of drinking water for Tacoma, supplying as much as 52 percent of the total water demand during peak usage. Although in 1993, the Shallow Aquifer did not meet the EPA current boundary criteria, in 1995 the EPA expanded boundaries and renamed the aquifer the Western Pierce County Aquifer. EPA is proceeding with official designation of the expanded sole source aquifer in the next several months.

    Tallahassee, FL

    Tallahassee’s Gaines Street Redevelopment Project consists of about 450 total acres sited between the downtown, Florida State University, and Florida A&M University. No less than 185 properties (of a total of 465) have either known contamination or a history of uses likely to have involved the storage or use of contaminants. While there are many active businesses in the corridor, there are numerous vacant parcels and the area is underutilized and is poised for major redevelopment. The community has committed itself to implement the product of a ‘design charette’ that generated preferred alternatives for traffic improvements, mix of housing and commercial uses oriented towards students and professionals, preservation of historical structures, and the inclusion of a downtown greenway and restored creek.

    Cleanup of key parcels remains an impediment, as does the provision of adequate stormwater controls for new development. The City has received state funding to match its own investment in planning and design monies to develop a master plan for historical resources in the area, final design for the greenway, and zoning/development standards that will be an incentive to implementing the community vision. Federal and state funds are being used to produce contamination assessment studies and remediation plans that will facilitate re-investment by providing property owners clear recommendations and cost estimates relating to the levels of cleanup required to meet future land uses in the study area.

    Toledo, OH

    Stickney West Industrial Park

    As a priority project for the City’s effort in addressing brownfield properties, the City is aggressively pursuing the investigation necessary for the subsequent cleanup and redevelopment of the Stickney West Industrial Park (SWIP). This property has a significant potential for private redevelopment due to its proximity to the newly expanded Chrysler-Jeep plant.

    The SWIP site is approximately 60 acres located just west of the new $1.2 billion Chrysler-Jeep assembly plant. The property will be developed for industrial use and available for just-in-time suppliers, some of which have already expressed interest in development of the property. The overall goal of this project is to redevelop the SWIP property to provide the much-needed economic viability for the economically distressed North Toledo area, while significantly minimizing health and environmental risks to residents. Economic development will also restore recreational enjoyment of the now stagnant Ottawa River corridor. The City plans to maximize public dollars by encouraging private investment in the remediation and redevelopment of the property.

    The redevelopment of this property continues and compliments the City’s efforts to address long term environmental conditions along the Ottawa River. Such efforts include the closure of the Stickney and Tyler landfills; cleanup of the ("Unnamed Tributary") of the Ottawa River (high levels of PCB contaminated sediment); Ottawa River Restoration Demonstration Project (in site sediment stabilization) Ottawa River Interpretive Trial (wetlands boardwalk) and clean up the SWIP property.

    The SWIP site historically is a blighted area, characterized by an abandoned fertilizer factory, junkyards, tire piles (up to 350,000 estimated), and illegal dumps. A unique characteristic of this site is the need to make it a revenue producing property, thereby capturing revenue sources outside the normal structure of government programs. The developers propose to build a construction and demolition debris landfill at the site, the revenues from the sale of the soils and the receipt of demolition debris will be used to remediate the site. Following remediation the site will be prepared for development.

    The project is in its initial stages with the City of Toledo moving forward with a Phase II Environmental Site Assessment funded by a U.S. EPA Assessment Grant. The U.S. EPA has also contributed technical assistance through the use of its laboratory and the contracting of the US Geological Survey for drilling services. The developers have secured an engineering firm to design the landfill and conduct the necessary geotechnical assessments of the site with respect to construction.

    A major benefit to the City is the creation of this model for public/private partnership, including all relevant stakeholders for redeveloping one of the City’s most difficult brownfield sites. Without this creative approach this site would have likely remained undeveloped and eventually cost the City an enormous price to address environmental issues in the future.

    Toledo Jeep Assembly Plant

    The City of Toledo, in a cooperative agreement with Daimler-Chrysler, is preparing a brownfield site adjacent to the existing Stickney Avenue Assembly Plant. The site, currently undergoing redevelopment as the new Toledo Jeep Assembly Plant, is a 400 acre parcel which had several areas of concern identified due to past industrial activities. Chrysler Corporation entered into a development agreement with the City of Toledo to build a new assembly plant on the property in order to maintain jobs within the City and accomplish a beneficial reuse for the property.

    Chrysler Assembly Plan

    The cooperative is a partnership with Chrysler, the City of Toledo, Ann Arbor Railroad, CSX Railroad, Ohio Department of Development, Ohio Department of Transportation, Ohio EPA, and the US Army Corporation of Engineers. The project involves the acquisition and remediation of an aluminum smelter, railroad yard, and 18 other businesses to provide for a $1.2 billion automobile assembly plant. In addition, the City is providing road and other infrastructure improvements to prepare the site. The State of Ohio will contribute approximately $26 million, funded through capital improvement monies, loans and tax increment financing.

    The site is contaminated with heavy metals, petroleum products and various organic compounds. Through remediation processes, the site shall meet the Ohio Voluntary Action Program (VAP) single parameter direct contact standards for industrial land use. Pursuant to the agreement between the City of Toledo and Chrysler, the overall site risk characterization is calculated at 10's for long term exposure of construction workers. The estimated costs for environmental cleanup is $7 million.

    The project is currently underway with Chrysler beginning construction on portions of the site, while the City is concurrently undertaking property acquisition, demolition, remediation and site preparation on adjacent portions. Problems associated with the development of the site are typical of many major construction projects. However, maintaining open communication for coordination of activities between all parties involved has been a primary problem. This has been resolved through frequent meetings where all necessary players participate and issues can be voiced and resolved. Other challenges include remediating the properties to the agreed upon standards that are protective of health and the environment, in a timely and cost effective manner. And, of course, the major challenge as in all brownfields projects is to identify and obtain financing from various sources: local, state, federal, and private. To date the City has not obtained financing for this project from the private sector.

    Tulsa, OK

    Oklahoma Steel Castings Redevelopment Project 1200 N. Peoria

    Vision: The brownfield site is donated to Tulsa Industrial Authority (TIA) and redeveloped into its highest and best use, which is most likely industrial.

    History: Started in the early 1920s, it was the largest steel castings plant west of the Mississippi River. At its height it employed over 400 workers and produced electric alloy, stainless steel and centrifugal steel castings. American Foundry Group, Inc. has owned the site since 1982 and has corporate offices in Bixby, Oklahoma. Currently, it is an under-utilized industrial site contributing to blight and has been closed since the mid-1980s.

    Site Characteristics:

  •  Total acres- 11.17

  •  Zoned Industrial Medium (IM)

  •  Great exposure/access- located next to Highway 75

  •  Minutes from downtown and airport

  •  Rail spur on the property

    The site has been for sale since 1987 and the buildings on the Oklahoma Steel Castings site do not meet market expectations because they are functionally obsolete and dilapidated. In order to attract a manufacturer or retailer to this area, the site must be cleared. Environmental issues from the Phase I/II include unclassified drums on the property, limited PCB contamination and hydrocarbon contamination.

    Progress: With strong and enthusiastic endorsements from the three neighborhood associations and 25 public/private partners the goal is to remove blight through demolition/ clearance of buildings and cleanup of the land for future industrial or commercial use. On August 6, 1998 the Tulsa Industrial Authority (Brownfields implementor) was awarded by the Tulsa City Council a CBDG grant in the amount of $150,000 for the demolition of the site. The award is contingent upon four factors: (1) TIA takes an ownership interest, (2) TIA have receipt of additional monies sufficient to complete demolition within one year, (3) TIA approve the interim or end-users land use on the site, and (4) the City reviews the environmental assessments.

    The owner of the site and TIA are currently in discussions about TIA taking title to the 11.17 acres. Remediation is currently projected to cost between $100,000 and $250,000 depending on a risk-based assessment. TIA and the Corps of Engineers have received $50,000 in additional brownfield funding from EPA Region 6 for environmental assessments. Finally, TIA has completed a site analysis and will use this in marketing the property.

    Impediments: Most brownfields are upside down meaning that the cost of cleanup and demolition exceeds the raw value of the land. The top two impediments that must be addressed are cleanup funds (needs to be grant/subsidy vs. low interest loans) and demolition funds. Other impediments include market conditions, surrounding uses/neighborhood decline and liability issues. Sites like this must be cleared before the private market will even consider these areas for economic development. Most manufacturers or retailers considering sites have a 30-90 day timeline and are not interested in properties that require a lot of fix-ups. In order to compete with greenfields, Tulsa must have sites that are clear and ready-to-go.

    Tentative Timeline:

    Spring 1999- TIA accepts title to the property

    Summer 1999 Remediation (3rd parties/sale proceeds) Demolition (CDBG/sale proceeds)

    2000 End-user

    Flint Steel Building/Warehouse- 1802 W. 21st Street

    Vision: The brownfield site is redeveloped into new buildings which includes a $1.4 million Flint warehouse and possibly additional industrial space available for lease for a manufacturing company or warehouse operations.

    History: Built in the 1920s, the 145,000 square foot building is the former Tulsa Rig & Reel, which later became Flint Steel. Flint Steel manufactured oil field equipment, boiler and heating exchange units, steel derricks and bridges and erection steel. The building was converted to a warehouse in the 1950s and is currently utilized by Flintco General Contractors and Oakridge Builders for storage of construction equipment and supplies. Both of these are tenant-companies of Flint Industries, which is a privately held company specializing in construction.

    Site Characteristics:

  •  Total acres- 5.4

  •  Zoned Industrial Medium (IM)

  •  Great exposure/access- located next to High 75

  •  Minutes from downtown and airport

  •  Rail spur on the property

    Flint has owned the site since the 1930s. The area has been dominated by oil refining, railroad, steel manufacturing/galvanizing and associated petroleum related manufacturing industries since the early part of the 20th century. Surrounding uses include a rail yard, a refinery and tank farm, Highway 75 and other industrial users. Environmental issues are focused on sub-surface soil and groundwater issues that include hydrocarbons and some heavy metals.

    Progress: Since March 1998, Tulsa Industrial Authority (TIA) has been working with Flint Industries on redevelopment scenarios and Flint has entered into Tulsa’s Brownfields Program. Flint has completed a Phase I/II environmental assessments and in December 1998 TIA and Flint met with Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to discuss redeveloping the site through the Oklahoma Voluntary Cleanup Program. TIA is working with the State and Flint to resolve any regulatory issues and possibly fund additional environmental assessments that might be required.

    Tentative Timeline: Winter/Spring 1999 Flint/TIA enters Oklahoma DEQ program

    Summer 1999 Certificate of Completion

    Fall 1999 Demolition/Construction (Flint)

    Warehouse- Charles Page Boulevard

    Vision: The brownfield site is donated to Tulsa Industrial Authority and utilized as an industrial warehouse/manufacturing facility. This is consistent with the goal of increasing employment outlined in the Charles Page Boulevard Area Neighborhood Revitalization Plan and with commercial real estate trends in the area.

    History: The Charles Page Boulevard area historically served the City of Tulsa as a major industrial center and residential area. The area has been losing population since the 1960s and workplace employment losses during the 1980s were staggering. In 1974 there were 4,100 employed persons working in industries and commercial establishments in the area. In 1994 workplace employment was estimated at only 850 employees. A revitalization plan was developed and adopted in 1996 by residents and the City.

    The history of the site indicates it has been industrial since around the 1920s and employed up to 200 people in the 1950s. The site originally was an industrial plant and manufactured reciprocating and piston pumps for high-pressure applications. The primary use of the plant was conducting pump manufacturing and testing.

    Until December 1989 the company operated the site for pump manufacturing and testing, as well as distribution. Since 1989 it has been utilized primarily as a warehouse facility for storing valve castings and materials from other plant facilities.

    Site Characteristics:

  •  Total acres- 5.61 (approximate) - Plant 1

  •  79,000 SF Total

  •  Zoned Industrial Medium (IM)

  •  Located in an Enterprise Zone

  •  5 Dock High Doors

  •  Drive-in Doors

  •  1400 Amps, 240 Volt Power

  •  11 Cranes: (2) 10 Ton (2) 5 Ton (1) 3 Ton (4) 1 Ton (2) 1/2 Ton

    The site has been for sale since at least 1996. The building on the site needs some capital improvements. Environmental issues include possible sub-surface soil and groundwater contamination. While some environmental information has been documented, a Phase 1 will be required.

    The current owner has agreed to continue to lease the building from Tulsa Industrial Authority. Possible scenarios for utilizing the property include (1) fixing up the building and attracting additional tenants, (2) using the lease income for other brownfield cleanups, or (3) using the property in an exchange with other brownfield redevelopment projects.

    Progress: In 1999, TIA will review this site as a potential brownfield and discuss details of a donation and lease agreement. Additional environment assessments might be performed as part of the due diligence planning.

    Tentative Timeline:

    Winter 1999 TIA reviews agreements/due diligence

    TIA accepts title to the property

    Summer 1999 Remediation, if necessary

    Redevelopment Plans

    Utica, NY

    Foster Paper Company Site 2160 Erie Street

    In July of 1998, the City of Utica was named as a US EPA Region II Brownfield Pilot. Our application for this program was based on the Foster Paper Company site located at 2160 Erie Street, on the edge of our city. The site was used for the manufacturing of boxes, pulp board and mill wrappers from the early 1900s until it was closed down and abandoned in the early 1980s. The city of Utica acquired the 176,000 (175,947) square foot property on back taxes.

    The site is presumed to be contaminated due to its history of heavy industrial use. The site has an abandoned water treatment facility that is believed to have been used to treat process water with chlorine, and the bulk storage location of the chlorine is yet to be determined. The site historically generated its own electric power with coal and later converted to a petroleum-powered electric generation process. Two large underground petroleum storage tanks are located on site. Records discovered in an abandoned administration office show that cleaning solvents have been used on site, but do not indicate a method of disposal.

    The Brownfield Pilot grant has provided the funds, which allow us to address the redevelopment of the Foster Paper Company site, as well as other brownfields in the City of Utica, much earlier than we would have been able to without the grant. Utica is just recovering from a downward spiral that brought it to the brink of bankruptcy in the early 1990s. Thanks to Mayor Edward A. Hanna’s steady leadership, business sense and beautification efforts, Utica is now back on the upturn. However, our financial stability is still quite shaky. There is no way we could properly address and rehabilitate our brownfields without this type of additional funding.

    Utica Converters, the business adjacent to the Foster Paper site, is extremely interested in the site. They wish to expand their current facility and acquisition of the Foster paper site would give them a great opportunity to do that. They have approached the Utica Urban Renewal Agency with hopes of purchasing this parcel. For this reason, the City of Utica wishes to pursue and expedite the investigation and remediation processes as quickly as possible. The Phase I assessment of the site is about to commence.

    Because the City of Utica is landlocked, the development of brownfields is a key component of our economic development strategy. The goal of our brownfields program is to assess the sites and determine the actions needed to make these sites ready for purchase and redevelopment for industrial/commercial use. The EPA Brownfield Pilot Program will allow us to conduct site assessments on four to five sites. The Foster Paper site is the first brownfield addressed in this manner by the City of Utica and will truly be the pilot of our brownfields program. We are also working with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation on a potential brownfields grant that would allow us to conduct site assessments and remediation on four additional sites. These grants will help us establish a comprehensive brownfields program that will greatly serve our citizens.

    Wauwatosa, WI

    One brownfield site is located in the eastern part of the City along a major street. This site, which housed a chemical plant, is under one acre in size. Environmental remediation is currently underway. Once completed, this site will be combined with two adjacent parcels and a grocery cooperative will be constructed. This development would not have occurred without the assistance of a state brownfield grant and federal Community Development Block Grant funds. Other impediments to this development included ownership issues and site assimilation problems. As mentioned, this site is located on a major street in Wauwatosa and was identified as a key development site in a recently completed land use plan for this area of the City. With this development, not only will a blighted site in the City be redeveloped, but new jobs will be created for city residents.

    Another brownfield site is a former filling station in the northeast part of the City. The site is about a 1/4 acre in size. While there has been a fair amount of interest in redeveloping this property, there is no development yet. The major impediment to development of this site is the current owner. The owner removed the gasoline tanks and remediated the site except for under the building. If the building is demolished, which is likely if the site is to be redeveloped, the contamination would have to be remediated. The extent of the contamination under the building is unknown. In addition, if the owner is to sell the site, he wants to be indemnified from any future liability related to contamination. Otherwise, he is content to let the property sit as is since he receives rental income from parking RVs on the site.

    Winston-Salem, NC

    On May 6, 1998, the Environmental Protection Agency announced that the City of Winston-Salem was one of thirty-six new recipients of a Brownfields Assessment Demonstration Program grant. Our study will focus on the Liberty Street Corridor, and will involve the identification and assessment of various brownfields in this area. An important measure in the success of this project will be public participation.

    At this point, we have no success stories to tell, but our process may be of interest. The Liberty Street corridor, at one time, was considered the gateway to the northeast part of the City, but around the end of World War I the area began to transition from a high-rent downtown district to an industrial area. It supported tobacco and textile manufacturing, as well as various automobile related businesses.

    As industry continued to expand, and neighborhoods were dissected by highway construction and "urban renewal," Liberty Street suffered accordingly. In 1995, the City adopted the Liberty Street Corridor Study which identified the brownfields along the corridor as an opportunity and an obstacle to development. In response to this report, the City has worked with community groups, churches, and local merchants to focus on the redevelopment of this corridor.

    As a result of these efforts, Liberty Street has made progress and retains great potential, yet many vacant commercial properties along Liberty Street have been for sale for many years, while other structures have been razed and the land remains undeveloped. Over the years, the tobacco industry reduced its presence in the city, in particular along Liberty Street, and many properties associated with the industry, including tobacco storage warehouses, have been converted to other uses or abandoned. The stigma of actual or perceived environmental contamination at properties along Liberty Street has contributed to a reluctance to redevelop this once thriving area. In fact the city attempted to structure an industrial park near the airport, but abandoned the project in part because of potential contamination feared to be in the area. This pilot project grant will complete another part of a puzzle that the city and community have been striving to complete.

    We have the following objectives for the project:

  •  To bring the public and private sectors together to develop community partnerships and identify significant environmental, economic, and social concerns impacting the Liberty Street area, and to explore options to resolve these issues to enhance the economic redevelopment for the community.

  •   To identify critical sites, according to community need, for future development, and to work together to explore environmental issues and develop remediation plans aimed at meeting these needs.

  •  To revitalize the Liberty Street corridor through the use or reuse of properties (either perceived or actually contaminated) and individuals which are not meeting their current potential while retaining the history of the Liberty Street area. This objective will be achieved through attracting new businesses to the area, enhancing the tax base of the corridor, creating and retaining jobs in the corridor, and improving the overall quality of life in the area.

  •  To develop an urban boulevard setting leading into downtown Winston-Salem.

    We attempt to accomplish these objectives by:

  •  Holding neighborhood meetings to educate the community, and property owners about brownfields (identification, risks, remediation, and redevelopment), and to ascertain the community needs.

  •  Meeting with the development/financial community to determine and address their development interests in the community.

  •  Meeting with specific property owners of identified sites to determine their interest and to provide information regarding potential liability.

  •  Conducting Phase I and Phase II environmental studies, and developing remediation plans, as needed, to address the identified contaminants.

  •  Preparing and distributing promotional information regarding the redevelopment of selected sites.

    We expect this process to take about two years, and anticipate:

  •  Increased knowledge of the citizenry;

  •  Increased employment opportunities for individuals living in the Liberty Street area; and

  •  Increased tax base, in the area, through the injection of private funds.

    York, PA

    A munitions manufacturing facility near Irvine, in Brokenstraw Township, Warren County, was bought by its 656 employees when the owner died. They found a number of environmental concerns throughout the 45 acres. Three of those areas have been remediated at private expense with the help of Act 2. The "Bed" or Brokenstraw area consists of a site where, from 1916 to about 1940, plant demolition waste was dumped into the stream bed to reroute Brokenstraw Creek. All waste materials and contaminated soils, (about 200 cubic yards), were removed to meet the statewide health standard. A subsequent groundwater assessment showed no impacts.

    The "Baghouse" area was the site of an Electric Arc Furnace baghouse and had some lead contaminated soil from the baghouse dust. Approximately two cubic yards of soil were excavated.

    Several underground storage tanks in the maintenance and storage garage area on Fitzerald Avenue have been removed, along with approximately 800 tons of soil to meet the statewide health standard for residential sites. This area will probably be sold for residential purposes. A groundwater assessment showed no impacts.

    Dean’s Water Service Inc.

    Dean’s Water Service was Southwestern Pennsylvania’s first Act 2 site. Located in Canton Township, Washington County, the site once served as a storage maintenance building and lot for a trucking company. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels in the soil seen as a result of past required action, although testing discovered a culvert that had an oil sheen as a result of past spills on the owner's adjacent property. DEP has since requested the adjacent property owner to clean up the spill area. Dean’s Water Services was able to finalize its purchase of the site and expand its business, creating 10 new jobs.


    The 2.46 acre former Thonet site in the City of York, York County, was a furniture manufacturing facility that suffered a catastrophic fire in 1993. Cleanup of this property included removal of debris from the fire, paint and drum removal, and asbestos removal. Additionally, remediation of the soil and groundwater contaminated by lead and benzene, was required to meet Act 2 Special Industrial Standards. Cleanup began in February 1996 and was completed in March. The new operator of the site, the Wolf Organization of York, is building a 37,000 square-foot state of the art facility on the site to manufacture countertops, employing 18 people.

    Yuma, AZ

    West Riverfront Recreational Development Area

    This brownfield site is a 64 acre closed landfill located on the south side of the Colorado River. The City’s project will include development of a greenbelt along the river, with walk and bike pathways; improvements to existing wildlife habitats; and construction of a boat launch and marina facility. The Environmental Protection Agency under their Targeted Site Assessment Program has provided technical assistance by conducting environmental assessments. These include gathering surface sediment samples along the northern boundary, collecting shallow groundwater samples from existing on-site and nearby wells, and soil and gas samples from the former landfill. The City has leveraged this technical grant into several million dollars of State and federal grants to develop the area.

    Giss Parkway Municipal Government Complex Site

    A significant brownfield site exists at a 30 acre site in the Historic Old Town area. The site includes an abandoned rail yard facility owned by Union Pacific. This old rail yard goes back to the turn of the century and was used for heavy industrial maintenance of railcars, liquid transfer, garaging and a railroad junkyard. The surrounding area also includes previous sites for a dry cleaner and bulk oil plants.

    The redevelopment of Giss Parkway is vital to bringing back the old downtown and will create hundreds of jobs, increase tax revenues, improve the transportation infrastructure, remove downtown blight and preserve open space and historical structures. Local growth has been discouraged in this area because of this significant brownfield situation.

    Negotiations have been opened with the railroad to acquire the property for the construction of a Municipal Government Complex and to remediate the contaminated property. The City has obtained an EPA grant to conduct a targeted site assessment to review the property for environmental conditions.